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Ph.D. Experiences

Throughout my Ph.D. work I have used many facilities at the University of Warwick, including optical spectrometers, vacuum chambers and electron microscopes. I have also used facilities outside the University of Warwick, including the Scienta XPS spectrometer at the National Centre for Electron Spectroscopy and Surface Analysis, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, UK, and the SGM 3 beamline at ASTRID, which is at the Institute for Storage Ring Facilities in Aarhus, University of Aarhus, Denmark.

My Ph.D. work has enabled me to:

  • learn the different methods of achieving ultra-high vacuum (UHV), in particular the different types of pumps and pressure gauges commonly used.
  • know how to bake UHV chambers and the benefits of such a procedure.
  • know how to monitor and maintain UHV.
  • learn sample preparation methods applicable to III-V semiconductors.
  • learn special sample preparation methods applicable to InN and InAs.
  • know how to use the low energy electron diffraction (LEED) technique.
  • know how to use the high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) technique.
  • use classical dielectric theory of inelastic electron scattering by collective excitations (plasmons and phonons) of III-V semiconductors.
  • know how to perform semi-classical dielectric theory simulations of HREELS spectra using a Fortran program.
  • be involved in installing and commissioning the x-ray source and electron analyser for x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) on the Warwick chamber.
  • how to use the x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) at both the University of Warwick and at NCESS.
  • be involved in installing and commissioning the electron source and photon detector of inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES).
  • how to use inverse and ultra violet photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) and (UPS), respectively.
  • how to operate a Vecco atomic force microscope (AFM) and produce topographical images and measure sample roughness and gather other information.
  • how to operate the Zeiss Supra scanning electron microscope (SEM), including how to use different imaging modes such as electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and what information these different contrast modes offer.
  • how to use the Department of Physic's fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to perform optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS), infrared reflection spectroscopy and variable angle specular reflectivity (VASR).
  • how to carry out Hall effect measurements.
  • how to perform k.p band structure calculations.
  • use MATLAB and C to calculate III-V semiconductor band structure and carrier statistics.
  • learn about space charge region.
  • how to use Poisson's equation within a modified Thomas-Fermi approximation to solve carrier concentration and band bending profiles.
  • how to search for relevant published work.
  • how to produce a concise physics report on my work.
  • how to publish my work in a physics journal.
  • how to produce presentation slides full of information that are not overwhelming.
  • how to produce a poster displaying my work.
  • how to present my work at both national and international conferences and workshops.
  • how to apply for funding.
While working towards my Ph.D. I have achieved many things, learnt various new skills, met lots of new people and the experiences that I have had are invaluable to me.


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Louise R. Bailey

Contact Me:

Louise R. Bailey
Department of Physics
University of Warwick
Gibbet Hill Road

Tel: +44 2476 524654

Email: L dot R dot Bailey at warwick dot ac dot uk
My website:


Reading a paper


working at the computer


describing my work