Skip to main content

Coinage of Greece & Rome - Essays

Term 1 (essays due on Monday 13 November)

1. How did the invention of coins change life in Ancient States?

Harris, W.V. ed. (2008) The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and the Romans (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
@Haselgrove, C. and Krmnicek (2012) ‘The Archaeology of Money’, Annual Review of Anthropology: 235-50
@Howgego, C. (1990) ‘Why did Ancient States Strike Coins?’, Numismatic Chronicle 150: 1-25
@ Kraay, C. M. (1964). 'Hoards, small change and the origin of coinage.' Journal of Hellenistic Studies 84: 76-91
@Kroll, J.H. (2008) ‘The monetary use of weighed bullion in Archaic Greece’, in The monetary systems of the Greeks and Romans ed. W.V. Harris (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 12-37
Kroll, J.H. (2012) ‘The monetary background of early coinage’, in The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage ed. W.E. Metcalf (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 33-42
@Melville Jones, J.R. (2006) ‘Why did the Ancient Greeks strike coins?’, Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia 17: 21-30
Schaps, D.M. (2004) The Invention of Coinage and the Monetization of Ancient Greece (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press)
@Schaps, D.M. (2007) ‘What was money in Ancient Greece?’ in The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans ed. W.V. Harris (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 38-48
@Thompson, C.M. (2003) ‘Sealed Silver in Iron Age Cisjordan and the 'Invention' of Coinage’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 22: 67-107
@van Alfen, P. (forthcoming 2014) ‘The role of “the state” and early electrum coinage’, in White Gold: Revealing the World’s Earliest Coins, International Congress (25-26 June 2012), Jerusalem, The Israel Museum [1-30] []
@Von Reden, S. (1997). ‘Money, law and exchange: coinage in the Greek polis’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 117: 154-176

2. Examine Greek coinage in the Archaic and Classical period. How far do they reflect identities?

Domínguez, A. J. (2004) 'Greek identity in the Phocaean Colonies', in Greek Identity in the Western Mediterranean, ed. K. Lomas.( Leiden and New York: Brill): 429-456 [DG 55.M3]
Frey-Kupper, S. (2013) Die antiken Fundmünzen vom Monte Iato 1971-1991. Ein Beitrag zur Geldgeschichte Westsiziliens (Studia Ietina X) (Lausanne: Éditions du Zèbre). [CJ1021.F73] [with detailed English summary pp. 697-723]

@Frey-Kupper, S. (2014) ‘Coins and their use in the Punic Mediterranean. Case studies from Carthage to Italy from the fourth to the first century BCE’, in The Punic Mediterranean. Identities and Identification from Phoenician Settlement to Roman Rule (British School at Rome Studies eds. J. Quinn and N. Vella (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) 76-108.
@Horsnaes, H. W. (2011). Coinages of indigenous communities in archaic southern Italy The mint as a means of promoting identity?, in Communicating Identity in Italic Iron Age Communities, M. Gleba and H. W. Horsnaes (Oxford, Oxbow=: 197-209 (
@Jenkins, G.K. (1971) ‘Coins of Punic Sicily I’, SNR 50: 24-78. [and CJ 549.J4]
Kraay, C. M. (1983) The Archaic Coinage of Himera (Naples: Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici) [CJ 550.H5]
Kraay, C. M. (1976) Archaic and Classical Greek Coins (London: Methuen) [CJ 335.K7]
@Osborne, R. (2009) Greece in the Making, 1200-479 BC. ) Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge), pp. 237ff
Papadopoulos, J. K. (2002), 'Minting identity: Coinage, ideology and the economics of colonization in Akhaian Magna Graecia’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 12: 21-55
@ Robinson, E. S. G. (1946). 'Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians.' Journal of Hellenic Studies 66: 13-20
@Scheidel, W. (2008) 'The divergent evolution of coinage in eastern and western Eurasia' in The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans, ed. W. V. Harris (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 267-286
Sheedy, K. (2012) ‘Aegina, the Cyclades and Crete’, in The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage, ed. W. Metcalf (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 105-127
@Rutter, N. K. (2016) ‘Coins in a “Home Away from Home”: The Case of Sicily’, in: The Archaeology of Greece and Rome: Studies in Honour of Anthony Snodgrass ed. J. Bintliff and K. Rutter (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press)
Rutter, N. K. (2000) 'Coin types and identity: Greek cities in Sicily' in Sicily from Aeneas to Augustus, ed. C. Smith and J. Serrati (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press): 73-83 [DG55.S5]
Rutter, N. K. (1997) The Greek Coinages of Southern Italy and Sicily (London: Spink) [CJ 517.R8]
@ van Alfen, P.G. (2008) The later fourth century BCE coinage of Issus, American Journal of Numismatics 20: 199-208
@van Alfen, P. (2006). ‘Cooperative coinage’, in Agoranomia: studies in money and exchange presented to John H. Kroll, ed. P. van Alfen, pp. 201-247 (New York: American Numismatic Society) (
And other articles in ‘Part 1: Archaic and Classical Greek Coinage’ in The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage, ed. W. Metcalf, Oxford

3. Was there a major shift from Classical to Hellenistic coinage? Trace and examine developments

Arnold-Biucchi, C. (2006) Alexander’s Coins and Alexander’s Image (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Art Museums)
@ Dahmen, K. (2007) The Legend of Alexander the Great on Greek and Roman Coins, London, New York, 2007 (London and New York: Routledge) [CJ 385.D2]
de Callatay, F. (2012) ‘Royal Hellenistic Coinages: From Alexander to Mithridates’, Oxford Handbook to Greek and Roman Coinage, ed. W.E. Metcalf, Oxford [CJ 339.O9]
@Manning, J.G. (2008). 'Coinage as “Code” in Ptolematic Egypt', in W. Harris (ed.) The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Roman (Oxford, Oxford University Press): 84-111 [HK 252.M6]
Meadows, A. (2001) ‘Money, freedom, and empire in the Hellenistic World’, in: Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World, ed. A. Meadows and K. Shipton (Oxford, Oxford University Press): 53-63.[ DF 107.M6]
@ Meadows, A. (2014) ‘The spread of coins in the Hellenistic world’, in Explaining Monetary and Financial Innovation 39 (Financial and Monetary Policy Studies ed. P. Bernholz and R. Vaubel (Cham: Springer) 169-94 (online from library)
Rowlandson, J. (2001) ‘Money use among the peasantry of Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt’, in: Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World, ed. A. Meadows and K. Shipton (Oxford, Oxford University Press): 145-153 [DF 107.M6]
@ von Reden, S. (2007). Money in Ptolemaic Egypt Cambridge (Cambridge University Press) [CJ 1369.R33].

see also various articles in: @ Part II, The Hellenistic World, in Oxford Handbook to Greek and Roman Coinage, ed. W.E. Metcalf, Oxford [CJ 339.O9], 175-274

Term 2 (essays due on Monday 19 February)

1. Is it correct to say that the production and use of coinage in early imperial times was a major shift from the Republican period?

Burnett, A., M. Amandry and P. P. Ripolles (1992). Roman Provincial Coinage Vol 1. London. [CJ 837.B8]

Crawford, M.H. (1985) Coinage and Money under the Roman Republic (London: Methuen)

@ Crawford, M.H. (1974, 2001 reprint with corrections) Roman Republican Coinage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) (= RRC)
Noreña, C. (2011), Imperial Ideals in the Roman West: Representation, Circulation, Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [DG 271.N67]
@ Noreña, C. (2011), 'Coins and Communication', In The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World, M. Peachin, (ed.) (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 248-68. [DG 78.O9 & HN10.R7 O94]
@Wallace-Hadrill, A. (1986). 'Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus.' Journal of Roman Studies 76: 66-87
@ Woytek, B.E. (2012) ‘The denarius Coinage of the Roman Republic’, in The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage ed. W.E. Metcalf (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 315-34

2. How did coinage respond to changed political and economic conditions in the third century AD?
Katsari, C. (2011). The Roman Monetary System: the eastern Provinces from the First to Third century AD, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. [HK 252.K2]
@ Mattingly, H. (1948), 'The Consecration of Faustina the Elder and her Daughter', Harvard Theological Review 41, 147-51.
@Metcalf W.E. (ed.) (2012) Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
- Yarrow L.M. Antonine Coinage
- Abdy R., The Severans
- Bland R., From Gordian III to the Gallic Empire (A.D. 238-74)
- Estiot S., The Later Third Century
Rowan, C. (2012) Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) [BL803.R69]
@ Rowan, C. (2011) 'The Public Image of the Severan Women', Papers of the British School at Rome 79, 241-73

3. Outline the potential of scientific analyses in numismatics

Beer-Tobey, L., Gale, N. H., et al. (1998) 'Lead Isotope Analysis of Four Late Archaic Silver Ingots from the Selinus Hoard', in Metallurgy in Numismatics Volume 4, ed. A. Oddy and M. Cowell. London: 385-92. [CJ 109.M48 Vol.4]
Burnett, A. (2000) ‘The Silver Coinage of Italy and Sicily in the Second Punic War’, in Metallanalytische Untersuchungen an Münzen der Römischen Republik (Berliner Numismatische Forschungen. Neue Folge 6) ed. W. Hollstein (Berlin: Mann) 102-13 [CJ915.M47]
@ Butcher, K. and Ponting, M. (2014) The Metallurgy of Roman Silver Coinage: From the Reform of Nero to the Reform of Trajan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [CJ851.B88]
@Butcher, K. and Ponting, M. (2012) ‘The beginning of the end? The denarius in the second century’, Numismatic Chronicle 2012: 63-83.
@ Butcher, K. and Ponting, M. (2005) ‘The Egyptian billon tetradrachm under the Julio-Claudian Emperors fiduciary or intrinsic?’ Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 84: 93-123.
@ Frey-Kupper, S. (2009) ‘A stone mould from Bir Messaouda (Carthage) for bronze coins of the Second Punic War. Preliminary notes’, Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 88: 185-91.
@ Giovanelli, G., Natali, S., et al. (2005) 'Microstructural Characterization of Early Western Greek Incuse Coins', Archaeometry 47: 817-33.
@ Klein, S. and Von Kaenel, H.-M. (2000) ‘The Early Roman Imperial Aes Coinage: Metal analysis and numismatic studies ’, Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 79: 53-106.