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Essays

Assessed Essays Deadlines:

Wednesday 2 December 2015, by 12 noon

Essay Questions are provided below together with a bibliography. Please note that the bibliography is by no means exhaustrive, and that you can find additional sources in the library catalogue and online resources.

Essay Questions:

1. How did Aby Warburg consider the revival of pagan Antiquity in the Renaissance?

A. Warburg, The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity, London 1999

E. Wind, Warburg's Concept of Kulturwissenschaft and Its Meaning for Aesthetics, in Donald Preziosi (ed.), The Art of Art History : A Critical Anthology: A Critical Anthology, Oxford, 2009.

2. Henry Chadwick stated that “If the Consolation contains nothing distinctively Christian, it is also relevant that it contains nothing specifically pagan either...[it] is a work written by a Platonist who is also a Christian, but is not a Christian work”. Discuss this statement with reference to (at least) Book I of the Consolation of Philosophy.

A. Grafton et al., The Classical Tradition, Cambridge, Mass., 2010, entry ‘Boethius’

E. R. Curtius, European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, Princeton, 1990, Chapters 1-2

C. W. Kallendorf, A Companion to the Classical Tradition, Oxford, 2010, Chapter 2 (Middle Ages)

J. Marenbon, The Cambridge Companion to Boethius, Cambridge-New York, 2009, Chapter 10

L. D. Reynolds and N.G. Wilson, Scribes & Scholars. A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature, Oxford, 19993, Chapters 1-3

H. Chadwick, Boethius: the Consolations of Music, Logic, Theology, and Philosophy, Oxford, 1981, Chapter 5

R. Black, Humanism and Education in Medieval and Renaissance Italy. Tradition and Innovation in Latin Schools from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Century, Chapter 4

3. Many textbooks still consider that “The Middle Ages were the Age of Aristotle and the Renaissance was the Age of Plato”. Discuss critically with reference to primary sources and context.

A. Grafton et al. (eds.), The Classical Tradition, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010 (entries ‘Aristotle and Aristotelianism’, ‘Plato and Platonism’)

J. Hankins, Plato in the Middle Ages, in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. J. Strayer, vol. IX, New York 1987, pp. 694-704, reprinted in J. Hankins, Humanism and Platonism in the Italian Renaissance, Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 2004, II, pp. 7-26 (electronic version available: http://www.scribd.com/doc/7878958/Hankins-Plato-in-the-Middle-Ages)

J. Hankins, Antiplatonism in the Renaissance and the Middle Ages, in his Humanism and Platonism in the Italian Renaissance, Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 2004, II, pp. 27-44.

J. Hankins, Plato in the Italian Renaissance, Leiden, 1990.

R. Klibansky, The Continuity of the Platonic Tradition during the Middle Ages, Millwood: Kraus International Publications, 1982.

4. Why is it problematic to talk about religious ‘orthodoxy’ to describe Renaissance understanding of pagan religion?

C. Celenza, The Lost Italian Renaissance: Humanists, Historians and Latin’s Legacy, Baltimore, 2004, Chapter 4.

J. Hankins, Plato in the Italian Renaissance, Leiden-New York, 1990, Part IV.

J. Hankins, Renaissance Platonism, in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. E. Craig, London-New York, 1998, VIII, pp. 439-447.

E. F. Rice, Jr., The Renaissance Idea of Christian Antiquity: Humanistic Patristic Scholarship, in A. Rabil, Jr. (ed.), Renaissance Humanism. Foundations, Forms, and Legacy. Volume 1: Humanism in Italy, Philadelphia, 1988, pp. 17-28.

H. D. Saffrey, 1492: The Reappearance of Plotinus, Renaissance Quarterly 49 (1996), pp. 488-508 available online through JSTOR or http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Florence,+1492%3A+the+reappearance+of+Plotinus-a018881387)

C. Trinkaus, In Our Image and Likeness: Humanity and Divinity in Italian Humanist Thought, Notre Dame, Ind., 1995, Chapters 12, 14 and 15.

D. P. Walker, The Ancient Theology: Studies in Christian Platonism from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, London, 1972, Introduction and Chapter 1.

E. Wind, Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance, London, 1958, Introduction.

5. To what extent can we say that Renaissance art is ‘original’ when it imitates ancient art?

Anthony Grafton et al. (eds.), The Classical Tradition (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010): Entries ‘Laocoon’, ‘Pantheon’

Phyllis Pray Bober and Ruth Rubinstein, Renaissance Artists and Antique Sculpture (London-Turnhout: Harvey Miller, 2010): Entry ‘Laocoon’

Leonard Barkan, Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance Culture (New Haven-London: Yale University Press, 1999): Chapter 1.

Richard Brilliant, My Laocoon: Alternative Claims in the Interpretation of Artworks, Berkeley, 2000.

Francis Haskell and Nicholas Penny, Taste and the Antique: the Lure of Classical Sculpture 1500-1900 (New Haven-London: Yale University Press, 1981).

David E. Karmon, The Ruin of the Eternal City. Antiquity and Preservation in Renaissance Rome (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011): ‘The Pantheon’

Alina Payne et al. (eds.), Antiquity and Its Interpreters (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 2000: ‘Petrarch and the Broken City’; ‘Symmetry and Eurythmy at the Pantheon’; ‘Pliny’s Laocoon?’

Charles Stinger, The Renaissance in Rome (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985)

6. To what extent can we say that the Renaissance influenced 18th-century understanding of Antiquity?

C. Highet, The Classical Tradition: Greek and Roman Influences on the Western World, Oxford 1949, pp. 104-126 (The Renaissance: Translation).

L. Hardwick, Receptions Studies, Oxford 2003, Chapter 1 (From the Classical Tradition to Reception Studies).

C. Kallendorf, A Companion to the Classical Tradition, Oxford 2007, Chapter 1 (‘Introduction’), Chapter 20 (‘Reception’).

S. L. Schein, ‘Our Debt to Greece and Rome’: Canon, Class and Ideology, in L. Hardwick and C. Stray, A Companion to Classical Receptions, Oxford, 2008, pp. 75-85.

A. Warburg, The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity, London 1999, Introduction.

C. Caruso and A. Laird, Italy and the Classical Tradition, London 2009.

A. Grafton et al., The Classical Tradition, Cambridge, Mass., 2010.

L. Hardwick and C. Stray, A Companion to Classical Receptions, Oxford 2008.

C. Martindale, Redeeming the Text: Latin Poetry and the Hermeneutics of Reception, Cambridge 1993, Chapter 1.

7. In what way did Renaissance popes used the symbol of ancient Rome to serve their political agenda, and why?

Leonard Barkan, Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance Culture (New Haven-London: Yale University Press, 1999): Chapter 1.

Anthony Grafton et al. (eds.), The Classical Tradition (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010): Entries ‘Caesar’ and ‘Rome’

Tamara Smithers, ‘“SPQR/CAPITOLIVM RESTITVIT”: The Renovatio of the Campidoglio and Michaelangelo’s Use of the Giant Order’, in Gregory Smith and Jan Gardeyne (eds.), Perspectives on Public Space in Rome, from Antiquity to the Present Day (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 157-186.

Charles Stinger, The Renaissance in Rome (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985), Chapter IV.

8. To what extent can we say that medieval and Renaissance authors considered that the revival of Antiquity could improve the culture of their time?

A. Grafton et al. (eds.), The Classical Tradition, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010 (entries ‘Bessarion’, ‘Ficino’, ‘Immortality of the Soul’, ‘Paganism’)

C. Celenza, The Lost Italian Renaissance: Humanists, Historians and Latin’s Legacy, Baltimore, 2004, Chapter 4.

J. Hankins, Plato in the Italian Renaissance, Leiden-New York, 1990, Part IV.

J. Hankins, Renaissance Platonism, in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. E. Craig, London-New York, 1998, VIII, pp. 439-447.

E. F. Rice, Jr., The Renaissance Idea of Christian Antiquity: Humanistic Patristic Scholarship, in A. Rabil, Jr. (ed.), Renaissance Humanism. Foundations, Forms, and Legacy. Volume 1: Humanism in Italy, Philadelphia, 1988, pp. 17-28.

H. D. Saffrey, 1492: The Reappearance of Plotinus, Renaissance Quarterly 49 (1996), pp. 488-508 available online through JSTOR or http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Florence,+1492%3A+the+reappearance+of+Plotinus-a018881387)

C. Trinkaus, In Our Image and Likeness: Humanity and Divinity in Italian Humanist Thought, Notre Dame, Ind., 1995, Chapters 12, 14 and 15.

D. P. Walker, The Ancient Theology: Studies in Christian Platonism from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, London, 1972, Introduction and Chapter 1.

E. Wind, Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance, London, 1958, Introduction.

9. What role does Antiquity play in Dante's Divine Comedy?

A. Grafton et al. (eds.), The Classical Tradition, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010 (entry ‘Dante Alighieri’)

N. G. Wilson, From Byzantium to Italy. Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance, London, 1992, Chapters 1-3 2.

T. Barolini, Dante’s Poets: Textuality and Truth in the Comedy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Ead., The Undivine Comedy: Detheologizing Dante, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

C. W. Kallendorf, A Companion to the Classical Tradition, Oxford, 2010, Chapter 3 (Renaissance)

L. D. Reynolds and N.G. Wilson, Scribes & Scholars. A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature, Oxford, 1993, Chapter 4

R. G. Witt, In the Footsteps of the Ancients: The Origins of Humanism from Lovato to Bruni (Leiden: Brill, 2000).

10. What do Winckelmann's views on ancient art tell us about the culture of his time?

Whitney Davis, Winckelmann Divided: Mourning the Death of Art History

Katherine Harloe, Winckelmann and the Invention of Antiquity: History and Aesthetics in the Age of Altertumswissenschaft (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

Edgar Wind, Warburg’s Concept of Kulturwissenschaft and its Meaning for Aesthetics, in Donald Preziosi (ed.), The Art of Art History : A Critical Anthology: A Critical Anthology, Oxford, 2009.

Wednesday 2 March 2016, by 12 noon

Essay questions and essential bibliography

1. Did Christianity really “triumph” over Greco-Roman medical thought in late antique Alexandria?

G. Ferngren, Medicine and Religion. A Historical Introduction, 2014 (ch. 3 on early Christianity)

G. Ferngren, Medicine and Health Care in Early Christianity, 2009

V. Nutton, ‘God, Galen, and the Depaganization of Medicine’, in P. Biller/J. Ziegler (eds), Religion and Medicine in the Middle Ages, 2001, 18-32

V. Nutton, ‘Medicine in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages’, in L. I. Conrad/M. Neve/ V. Nutton/R. Porter (eds), The Western Medical Tradition (800BC-1800), 1995, London, 71-88

O. Temkin, Hippocrates in a World of Pagans and Christians, 1995

2. How, and why, did lovesickness become an important medical question in the Renaissance?

M. Altbauer, Prescribing Love: Italian Jewish Physicians Writing on Lovesickness in the 16th and 17th centuries, Jerusalem, 2009

D. Beecher/M. Ciavolella Jacques Ferrand. A Treatise on Lovesickness (translated and edited, and with a critical introduction and notes by), Syracuse University Press, 1990

A. Gowland, The Worlds of Renaissance Melancholy. Robert Burton in Context, Cambridge, 2006

S. W. Jackson, Melancholia and Depression: from Hippocrates to Modern Times, 1986

R. Klibansky et alii, Saturn and Melancholy: Studies in the History of Natural Philosophy, Religion and Art, 1964 (tr. L. White, 1965)

M. A. Lund, Melancholy, Medicine and Religion in Early Modern England. Reading The Anatomy of Melancholy, Cambridge, 2010

3. Adapting classical knowledge to local resources and the vernacular: how representative is the case of Bald’s Leechbook?

M. L. Cameron, Anglo-Saxon Medicine, 1993 M. Gretsch, ‘Literacy and the uses of the vernacular’, in M. Godden/M. Lapidge (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature (chapter 15), 273-294

R. Marsden, The Cambridge Old English Reader (“Teaching and Learning”), 2011

V. Nutton, ‘Medicine in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages’, in L. I. Conrad/M. Neve/ V. Nutton/R. Porter (eds), The Western Medical Tradition (800BC-1800), 1995, London, 71-88

M. Swanton, Anglo-Saxon Prose, 1993

F. Wallis, Medieval medicine. A reader, 2010 (esp. p. 119-128)

4. Melancholy in early modern literature: literary convention or influence of medical discourse?

L. Babb, The Elizabethan Malady, 1951

B. Gellert Lyons, Voices of melancholy. Studies in literary treatments of melancholy in Renaissance England, 1971

A. Gowland, The Worlds of Renaissance Melancholy. Robert Burton in Context, Cambridge, 2006

M. A. Lund, Melancholy, Medicine and Religion in Early Modern England. Reading The Anatomy of Melancholy, Cambridge, 2010

W. Schleiner, Melancholy, Genius, and Utopia in the Renaissance, 1991

5. How are the changes in medieval and Renaissance medicine reflected in architecture?

J. Henderson, ‘Healing the body and saving the soul: hospitals in Renaissance Florence’, Renaissance Studies 15-2, 2001, 188-216

T. S. Miller, The Birth of the Hospital in the Byzantine Empire, 1997

A. Ragab, The Medieval Islamic Hospital: Medicine, Religion, and Charity, 2015

F. Wallis, Medieval medicine. A reader, 2010 (ch. 24-25 and 94-98)

6. Is Burton’s Anatomy of melancholy a medical text?

A. Gowland, ‘Rhetorical Structure and Function in The Anatomy of Melancholy’, Rhetorica 19, 2001, 1-48

A. Gowland, The Worlds of Renaissance Melancholy. Robert Burton in Context, Cambridge, 2006

M. A. Lund, Melancholy, Medicine and Religion in Early Modern England. Reading The Anatomy of Melancholy, Cambridge, 2010

A. Wear, ‘Religious Beliefs and Medicine in Early Modern England’ in H. Marland/M. Pelling (eds), The Task of Healing: Medicine, Religion and Gender in England and the Netherlands, 1450-1800, 1996, 145-169

R. G. Williams, ‘Disfiguring the Body of Knowledge: Anatomical Discourse and Robert Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy’, English Literary History 68, 2001, 593-614

7. Did anatomical illustrations play a role in the success of Vesalius’ De humani corporis fabrica (1543)?

A. Carlino, Books of the Body. Anatomical Ritual and Renaissance Learning, (tr. J. and A. C. Tedeschi) 1999

A. Cunningham, The Anatomical Renaissance, 1997

I. K. McLeod, ‘A historical enigma: The artist responsible for the illustrations of Andreas Vesalius's 'De humani corporis fabrica'.’ Pharos of Alpha Omega Honor Medical Society 59, 1996, 8-13.

Saunders, J. B. de C. M., and Charles D. O'Malley. The Illustrations from the works of Andreas Vesalius of Brussels, 1950.

J. Sawday, The Body Emblazoned: Dissection and the Human Body in Renaissance Culture, 1995.

8. Hospital: late antique or Islamic invention?

P. Horden, ‘Poverty, Charity, and the Invention of the Hospital’, in S. F. Johnson (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Late Antiquity, 2012

T. S. Miller, The Birth of the Hospital in the Byzantine Empire, 1997

V. Nutton, ‘Medicine in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages’, in L. I. Conrad/M. Neve/ V. Nutton/R. Porter (eds), The Western Medical Tradition (800BC-1800), 1995, London, 71-88

A. Ragab, The Medieval Islamic Hospital: Medicine, Religion, and Charity, 2015

F. Wallis, Medieval medicine. A reader, 2010 (esp. ch. 94-98)

General guidance on essay writing

1. Presentation: Marks will be awarded for good English expression; marks will be deducted for poor presentation, including poor grammar and spelling. Marks will be awarded for correct presentation of footnotes and bibliography

2. Clarity of analysis: Marks will be awarded for work which is organised coherently on the basis of arguments and deducted for work which is incoherent or presents a mass of amorphous material. The case the student is arguing should be clear to the assessor in every paragraph - don't fall automatically into a chronological arrangement of your material, or a line by line examination of a text, unless you are making a specific point, narrowly argued, about development or change over time.

3. Primary sources: Marks will be awarded for good use of a range of ancient texts and other materials – inscriptions, images, coins, archaeology etc. - and deducted for unsubstantiated arguments and opinions. Marks will be awarded for pertinent quotation and for thoughtfulness about its usefulness as evidence. Don’t use quotations of primary materials or images merely as illustrations. Think about what contribution they make to your argument, what role they play as evidence, where the producers of the text or artefact are 'coming from'.

4. Secondary sources: Marks will be awarded for isolating the main issues and debates in modern scholarship on the subject. Marks will be deducted for overdependence on a single unquestioned modern authority. Think also about where modern scholars are 'coming from', e.g. by reading reviews of their work from the websites of JSTOR, Bryn Mawr Classical Review, or Project Muse.

5. Originality and Sophistication: Marks will be awarded for thoughtfulness, well-founded scepticism and original ideas which attempt to surpass the issues and debates found in modern discussions in order to take the argument in a new direction.

Refer to the departmental essay-writing checklist in order to help ensure that you meet these criteria.

http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/classics/students/advice

Plagiarism
Plagiarism, defined as ‘the attempt to pass off someone else’s work as one’s own’ is a variety of cheating or fraud. It is taken very seriously by the University and students who are caught can suffer penalties which are extremely detrimental to their career. If in doubt about what constitutes plagiarism, please consult the online tutorial at

http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/its/servicessupport/eassessment/jiscpds/avoidingplagiarism2/

To avoid any confusion however you should take special care with two things:
1: Cite the sources you are using
2: Use quotation marks for the quotes you are quoting.

Avoiding plagiarism
All written work produced for assessment must be entirely yours. Your work will often use material covered in lectures and seminars, but your work must demonstrably be your own representation of that material. You must not quote from other people’s work word-for-word without acknowledging this by use of “quotation-marks”. If you present someone else’s thoughts, words, or other work as your own, then you will have committed plagiarism. In general it is poor practice to scatter quotations from other scholars throughout your essay; you should attempt to rephrase what other people have said in your own words, and then also include a reference to the source of your ideas in a footnote. When taking notes from journals and books, make sure that you indicate clearly in your notes, using quotation marks, if you’re copying directly word-for-word. This will ensure that you do not inadvertently reproduce someone else’s words in your essay. In general, however, the best practice is to paraphrase and analyse as you read and make notes so that your notes do not simply copy out chunks of other people’s work. You should also avoid referring to what a lecturer has said without finding out for yourself on what his/her ideas are based. You may cite primary sources on handouts.

Rules for avoiding plagiarism
Good study technique, writing style and correct referencing of quotations will help you to avoid unintentional plagiarism. If you follow these simple rules you will always be safe:
· Always take down a detailed reference for each text that you read and take notes from.
· While copying quotations, make sure you clearly mark them as quotations in your working notes.
· Gather and use your own examples whenever you want to support a particular view.
· Ensure that all quotations are surrounded by quotation marks.
Ensure that your references can be used to locate the original source text.

Feedback:
Essays should be returned to students within three working weeks or at the beginning of the following term. The marked copy of an assessed essay is retained by the Office. Copies of cover sheets and other comments can be made available to students once marks have been finalized and recorded. Essays will be handed back individually, when there will be a chance to discuss them. It is essential that students attend these tutorials. Keep a copy of your essay, and re-read it before your feedback session. You will also find it helpful when re-reading your essay to complete the departmental ‘Essay checklist’ template, which can be found online, and which will help you to understand how you can improve your work:

http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/classics/students/advice