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Essays


Essay 1 (deadline: Wednesday 30 November, 12.00 noon):

 

1. Was there a defensive border along the eastern edge of the Roman empire from the Euphrates to the Red Sea, and if so, who did it defend against?

Bibliography

Key works:

@Isaac, B, The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East (2nd ed., Oxford, 1992). (For a review of this book, see http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/1990/01.01.12.html.)

Sartre, pp. 25-30 (6 copies in office, labeled ‘Parthians’)

@Millar, Part I, 'Empire', pp. 27-222 (relevant material scattered throughout these pages - you'll have to look through carefully)

Butcher, chapter 2 ‘Rome, Syria, Parthians and Persians’; chapter 10 ‘The Military’ (especially the section ‘The Enemy Without’, pp. 407-409 (an electronic version of the draft text of my book, without pictures, is available on the bibliography page for the module. Quite a lot of it is also on google books)

Daryaee, T, Sasanian Persia: the rise and fall of an empire (London, 2009). DS 286.D3

Dignas, B, Winter, E, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals (Cambridge, 2007). DS 286.D4

@Edwell, P, Between Rome and Persia: The Middle Euphrates, Mesopotamia and Palmyra under Roman Control (London, 2008).

Ferrill, A, Roman Imperial Grand Strategy (Lantham, 1991). U 35.F3

Kennedy, D, ‘Parthia and Rome: Eastern Perspectives’, in D. Kennedy (ed.), The Roman Army in the East (Ann Arbor, 1996), 67-90. U 35 R6 (oversize) (copies also available from the departmental office)

Luttwak, E N, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire (Baltimore, 1976). U 35.L8 This book is a bit outdated, but it presents the model of defence that most scholars subsequently argue for or against.

@Potter, D S, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395 (London, 2004).

@Wheeler, E L ‘Methodological Limits and the Mirage of Roman Strategy, Part I’, Journal of Military History 57.1 (1993), 7-41, ‘Part II’, JMS 57.2 (1993), 215-240 ( (available on JSTOR).

You may also find the following relevant:

Potter, D S, ‘Alexander Severus and Ardashir’, Mesopotamia 22 (1987), 147-157 (not in the library, unfortunately, but reprinted in Potter’s Prophecy and History in the Crisis of the Roman Empire, Oxford, 1990: 370-380).

@Isaac, B ‘The meaning of the terms limes and limitanei’, Journal of Roman Studies 78 (1988), 125-147.

Elton, H Frontiers of the Roman Empire (London, 1996). DG 59.A2

Whittaker, C R, The Frontiers of the Roman Empire (Baltimore, 1994). DG 59.A2


2. Why did Palmyra rebel against Rome under Zenobia?

Bibliography

Butcher, chapter 1, ‘Rome, Syria, Parthians and Persians’, pp. 58-60 (an electronic version of the draft text of my book, without pictures, is available on the bibliography page for the module. Quite a lot of it is also on google books)

Sartre, pp. 350-258 (7 copies in departmental office, labeled ‘Palmyra’)

@Millar, pp. 159-173; the section on the culture of Palmyra may also be useful, pp. 319-336.

@Ball, pp. 74-87 (to be read with care)

Apart from the general works listed in the module bibliography, the following will be useful:

@Cambridge Ancient History, vol 12 (various essays).

Dodgeon, M H, Lieu, S N C, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, AD 226-363: A Documentary History (London, 1991). DG 271.R6 (copies of the relevant section in the departmental office)

@Edwell, P, Between Rome and Persia: The Middle Euphrates, Mesopotamia and Palmyra under Roman Control (London, 2008).

Graf, D ‘Zenobia and the Arabs’, in D H French, C S Lightfoot, The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1988), 143-167. DS 45.E2

@Millar, F ‘Paul of Samosata, Zenobia and Aurelian: The Church, Local Culture and Political Allegiance in Third-Century Syria’, Journal of Roman Studies 61 (1971), 1-17.

@Potter, D S, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395 (London, 2004).

Stoneman, R., Palmyra and its Empire: Zenobia’s Revolt against Rome (Ann Arbor, 1994). DS 99.P2 (a popularising account, to be read with care)

Watson, A, Aurelian and the Third Century (London, 1999). DG 308.W2

There is also an MA thesis by a former Warwick student, Timothy Lennon, Palmyra and the third century: an historical study (1993).


3. Did the so-called ‘client kingdoms’ of the Near East have any strategic value for Rome?

Bibliography

Butcher, chapter 3, ‘Political entities’, especially the section ‘Friendly Kings’, pp. 87-98 (an electronic version of the draft text of my book, without pictures, is available on the bibliography page for the module)

Sartre, pp. 70-87 (6 copies of the relevant pages are in the office, labeled ‘Client kings’)

@Millar, chapter 2, pp. 27-79.

@Ball, pp. 30-73 (to be read with care)

Braund, D., Rome and the Friendly King (London, 1983). DG 83.3.B7

Freeman, P ‘The Annexation of Arabia and Imperial Grand Strategy’, in D L Kennedy, D Braund (eds), The Roman Army in the East (Ann Arbor, 1996), 91-118. (copies in departmental office)

Luttwak, E N, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire (Baltimore, 1976).

Sherwin-White, A N, Roman Foreign Policy in the East, 168 BC – AD 1 (Norman, 1981) DG 231.3.S4 (only covers part of the period)

Sullivan, R, Near Eastern Royalty and Rome, 100-30 BC (Toronto, 1990). DS 62.1.S8 (only covers part of the period)


4. How do the remains of the ‘Dead Cities’ and the villages of the Hauran inform us about the Syrian countryside during the Roman period?

Bibliography

Butcher, chapter 5, ‘Exploiting the Available’, pp. 135-179 (an electronic version of the draft text of my book, without pictures, is available on the bibliography page for the module)

@Ball, chapter 6, pp. 207-245.

Sartre, chapter 7, pp. 206-239.

G. Tate, ‘The Syrian Countryside during the Roman Era’, in S. Alcock (ed.), The Early Roman Empire in the East (Oxford, 1997), pp. 55-71.

C. Foss, ‘The Near Eastern Countryside in Late Antiquity’, in J. Humphrey (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East (Ann Arbor, 1995), pp. 213-34. (See bibliography web page)

J. Grainger, ‘”Village Government” in Roman Syria and Arabia’, Levant 27 (1995), pp. 197-222. (See bibliography web page)

K. Greene, 'Settlement and agriculture in northern Syria', The Archaeology of the Roman Economy, London, 1986: 138-140.

G. M. Harper, 'Village administration in the Roman province of Syria', Yale Classical Studies I (1928): 105-168. (See bibliography web page)

For more bibliography, see the bibliography web page under 'The Syrian Countryside'. There are a number of papers by M. Mundell Mango about Androna and its environs on line at: http://www.arch.ox.ac.uk/ANDS-publications.html



Essay 2 (deadline: Tuesday 28 February, 12.00 noon)


1. How important was long distance trade with states outside the Roman Empire for the economies of Near Eastern cities?

Bibliography

Ball, p. 76, pp. 123-139.

Bowersock, G W, Roman Arabia, Cambridge, MA, 1983 (1 copy in library: DS 154.2.B6).

Bowersock, G W, ‘Social and Economic History of Syria under the Roman Empire’, in J-M Dentzer, W Orthmann (eds), Archéologie et histoire de la Syrie, II, Saarbrücken, 1989, pp. 63-80 (see bibliography page under ‘The Syrian Countryside’).

Butcher, pp. 184-186.

@Dien, A E, ‘Palmyra as a Caravan City’: http://www.silkroadfoundation.org/newsletter/2004vol2num1/Palmyra.htm

@Gawlikowski, M ‘Palmyra as a trading centre’, Iraq 56 (1994): 27-33.

@Matthews, J F, ‘The Tax Law of Palmyra. Evidence for Economic History in a City of the Roman East’, Journal of Roman Studies 74 (1984): 157-180.

Millar, pp. 330-332.

Millar, F ‘Caravan Cities: The Roman Near East and Long-Distance Trade by Land’, Rome, the Greek World, and the East, vol iii, Chapel Hill, 2006: 275-299 (copies in file in Classics office).

Raschke, D G, ‘New Studies in Roman Commerce with the East’, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt 2.9, 1976, pp. 604-1361 (class mark is DG 210.A8).

Rostovtzeff, M I, Caravan Cities, New York, 1971 (1 copy in library store: DS 49.R6).

Sartre, ch. 8, esp. pp. 267-271.

@Young, G, Rome’s Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy, London, 2001 (also 1 hard copy in library: DG 107.Y6).


2. Were communal identities in Roman Syria shaped by ‘cultural amnesia’ (to borrow a term from Fergus Millar)?

Bibliography

Butcher, chapter 8

Sartre, chapter 9

Millar, chapter 13 (but most of part II of the book, chapters 6-13, is also relevant)

Kennedy, D, ‘The identity of Roman Gerasa: an archaeological approach’, Mediterranean Archaeology 11 (1998): 39-69 (copies in Classics office).

Kennedy, D, ‘Greek, Roman and native cultures in the Roman Near East’, in J H Humphrey (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East. Volume 2. Some Recent Archaeological Research, Portsmouth, R I, 1999: 76-106 (1 copy in library: DS 111.R56 Vol. 2). This is a review article of Millar’s book.

Millar, F, ‘The Phoenician Cities: a Case Study of Hellenisation’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 1983: 55-71 = F Millar, Rome, the Greek World, and the East, vol iii, Chapel Hill, 2006: 32-50 (copies in file in Classics office).

Millar, F, ‘Ethnic Identity in the Roman Near East, AD 325-450: Language, Religion, Culture’, Rome, the Greek World, and the East, vol iii, Chapel Hill, 2006: 378-405 (copies in file in Classics office).

Millar, F ‘Narrative and Identity in Mosaics from the Late Roman Near East: Pagan, Jewish and Christian’, in Y Z Eliav et al., The Sculptural Environment of the Roman Near East, Leuven 2008: 225-256 (copies in Classics office).

Pollard, N, ‘Colonial and Cultural Identities in Parthian and Roman Dura-Europos’, in R Alston, S N C Lieu (eds.), Aspects of the Roman East, Turnhout, 2007: 81-101 (copies in file in Classics office; 1 copy in library: DS 62.1.A8).

Woolf, G, ‘Becoming Roman, Staying Greek: Culture, Identity and the Civilizing Process in the Roman East’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 40 (1994): 116-143.

Sartre, M, ‘The Nature of Syrian Hellenism in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Periods’, in Y Z Eliav et al., The Sculptural Environment of the Roman Near East, Leuven 2008: 25-49 (copies in Classics office).

Schmidt-Colinet, A, ‘Aspects of “Romanization”: The Tomb Architecture of Palmyra and its Decoration’, in S E Alcock, The Early Roman Empire in the East, Oxford, 1997: 157-177 (2 copies in library, one short loan: DG 59.A2).

Dunbabin, K M Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World, Cambridge, 1999 (2 copies in library, 1 in learning grid: NA 3760.D8; 1 in external store: 738.5093.DUN).


3. To what extent did Roman religious cults influence indigenous pagan religions in the Near East?

Bibliography

Ball, pp. 317-356 (other parts of the book also touch on the subject).

Butcher, chapter 9 (but see also chapter 8 as well).

Millar, part II (passim, e.g. pp. 242-249; 300-309).

Sartre, chapter 10.

Butcher, K ‘Acolytes and aspergilla: on five coin types of Heliopolis’, Topoi 16 (2009): 169-187 (can be downloaded from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/classics/staff/butcher/butcheracolytes_topoi16.pdf ).

Friedland, E A ‘Visualising Deities in the Roman Near East: Aspects of Athena and Athena-Allat’, in Y Z Eliav et al., The Sculptural Environment of the Roman Near East, Leuven 2008: 315-350 (copies in Classics office).

Gaifman, M ‘The Aniconic Image of the Roman Near East’, in T. Kaizer (ed.), The Variety of Local Religious Life in the Near East in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, Leiden 2008: 37-72 (copies in Classics office).

Gawlikowski, M ‘The Statues of the Sanctuary of Allat in Palmyra’, in Y Z Eliav et al., The Sculptural Environment of the Roman Near East, Leuven 2008: 397-411 (copies in Classics office).

Kropp, A ‘Jupiter, Venus and Mercury of Heliopolis (Baalbek). The images of the “triad” and its alleged syncretisms’, Syria 87 (2010): 229-264 (can be downloaded from http://www.academia.edu/1850900/Jupiter_Venus_and_Mercury_of_Heliopolis_Baalbek_._The_images_of_the_triad_and_its_alleged_syncretisms ).

Stewart, P ‘Baetyls as statues? Cult images in the Roman Near East’, in Y Z Eliav et al., The Sculptural Environment of the Roman Near East, Leuven 2008: 297-314 (copies in Classics office).

Weber, T M ‘Sculptures from Southern Syrian Sanctuaries of the Roman Period’, in Y Z Eliav et al., The Sculptural Environment of the Roman Near East, Leuven 2008: 363-396 (copies in office).


4. Did the sixth and early seventh centuries witness the end of Roman cities in Syria?

Bibliography

Butcher, chapter 7 and epilogue.

Di Segni, L ‘The involvement of local, municipal and provincial authorities in urban building in late antique Palestine and Arabia’, in J H Humphrey (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East. Volume 1. Some Recent Archaeological Research, Portsmouth, R I, 1995: 312-332.

@Foss, C ‘Syria in transition, AD 550-750: an archaeological approach’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51 (1997): 189-269.

@Kennedy, H ‘From “polis” to “madina”: urban change in late antique and early Islamic Syria’, Past and Present 106 (1985): 3-27.

Liebeschuetz, W The Decline and Fall of the Roman City, Oxford, 2001 (1 copy in library: DG 82.L4).

Liebeschuetz, W From Diocletian to the Arab Conquest: Change in the Roman Empire, Aldershot, 1990 (1 copy in library: DG 319.L4).

@Walmsley, A ‘Economic developments and the nature of settlement in the towns and countryside of Syria-Palestine, ca. 565-800), Dumbarton Oaks Papers 61 (2007): 319-352.