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City of Rome - Essays

ASSESSED ESSAYS:

Malum est consilium quod mutari non potest.

A bad plan is one which has no room for change. - Publilius Syrus


GENERAL ADVICE ON ESSAY TOPICS:

*The answer and main arguments to each question should be clearly set out in the introduction of the essay.

* Arguments should use specific examples from a handful of buildings, structures, sources. Many of these questions could be answered sufficiently through a detailed discussion of a single building (or a comparison of two). Brief discussions of more than 4 buildings will not provide the level of depth required.

* Images and passages (both are primary sources) should be discussed & analysed by you. The dates and identifications of buildings are often debated, so secondary sources should be used carefully (you may need to clarify why you accept a certain scholars work).

* Case studies of buildings & monuments will be provided in lecture and in seminars (as are images) but essay discussions should take these a step further.

* All the questions below can be answered in a number of ways, it is up to you to decide which sources to use. If you have concerns, please contact the lecturer (queries will be answered up to a week before the essay is due).

* Be flexible: if as you are writing, you find that you have used half or all the word count on a specific discussion, consider carefully whether you try and cut/rewrite (often very time consuming) or to merely change your essay plan (just make sure it still answers the question!!!).

Term 1 Essay Deadline is Tuesday 29 November (week 9) at 12 noon

Key Referential Texts for all questions
A. Claridge (1998) Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford.

A. Gordon (1992) An Illustrated guide to Latin Epigraphy. Berkeley.

A. Kamm and A. Graham (2015, 3rd ed.), The Romans: An Introduction. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge (Third fundamentally revised edition) [DG231.K23]

Platner & Ashby (1929) A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome Oxford. Online

M. Steinby (1993-2000) Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae 6 vols.

J. Coulston & H. Dodge (2001) (eds) Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City. Oxford.

N. Rothstein (2011) (ed) Companion to the Roman Republic (Blackwell). ebook & multople copies in library.


1. Does archaeological evidence corroborate historical and literary accounts of Rome's foundation?

Historical and Literary Traditions

Cornell, T. “The Tyranny of evidence A discussion of the possible uses of literacy in Etruria and Latium in the Archaic Age” in J. Humphrey (ed) Literacy in the Roman World JRA Supp. 3, 7-34, Ann Arbor. (1986).

-“The Formation of the Historical Tradition of Rome” in I.S. Moxno (ed) Past Perspectives: Studies in Greek & Roman Historical Writing. Cambridge.

(1995) The Beginnings of Rome, New York.

C. Edwards (1996), Writing Rome: Textual Approaches to the City. Cambridge * preview on google books.

M. Fox (1996), Roman Historical Myths. The Regal Period in Augustan Literature (Oxford) [PA 6019.F6]

G.A. Forsythe (2005) A Critical History of Early Rome.

E. Gabba, (1991) Dionysius and the History of Archaic Rome. Berkeley

A. Grandazzi (1997) The Foundation of Rome: Myth and History, Cornell.

K.W. Grandsen (1976) Virgil, Aeneid Book VIII, Cambridge.

N. Hopkins, The Cloaca Maxima and the Monumental Manipulation of Water in Archaic Rome. Weblink

M Jaeger (1997) Livy’s Written Rome. Ann Arbor.

*T.P. Wiseman (1995), Remus. A Roman Myth. CUP: Cambridge. [BL 820.R3]

T.P. Wiseman (1996), ‘What do we know about early Rome?’ in JRA 9, 310-315. [Arts periodical]

T.P. Wiseman (2004) The Myths of Rome [BL 803W.4]


Archaeology

G. Alföldi (1965), Early Rome and the Latins (Ann Arbor) [DG 231.A5]

A.J. Ammerman (1990) ‘On the origins of the Forum Romanun AJA 94; 627-645 (1996).

“The Comitium in Rome from the Beginning” AJA 100; 121-136.(1998)

“Environmental Archaeology in the Velabrum: a Report” JRA 11 213-23. (2009)

Davies, P. J.E. (2003) “Exploring the International Arena: The Tarquin’s Aspirations for the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus” AIAC. Boston.

G. Galinsky (1974) “The Tomb of Aeneas at Lavinium”, Vergilius no. 20, 2-11. JSTOR

J. F. Hall (1996) Etruscan Italy: Etruscan influences on the civilizations of Italy from Antiquity to the Modern Era *Searchable on Google books .

J. N. Hopkins, The Cloaca Maxima and the Monumental Manipulation of Water in Archaic Rome: Article online

A.K. Michels (1953) “Topography &Interpretation of the Lupercalia” TAPh 84, 35-59.

K. Rauflab (1986) Social Studies in Archaic Rome. Berkeley.

David & Francesca Ridgway (1979) (eds) Italy before the Romans: The Iron Age, Orientalising and Etruscan Periods. New York.

(1988) “The Etruscans” CAH2 IV 635-75.

C.J. Smith (1994) “A review of archaeological studies on Iron Age and Archaic Latium JRA 7 285-301.

(1996) Early Rome and Latium: Economy & Society 1000-500 BC.

(1997) “Servius Tullus, Cleisthenes, and the emergence of the polis in Central Italy” in L. Mitchell and P. J. Rhodes The Development of the polis in Archaic Greece”208-16. London.

T.P Wiseman (1995), “The God of the Lupercal” JRS 79; 1-22 JSTOR


2. How do Rome's 4th-2nd century BC victory temples on the Via Triumphalis compare with contemporary temples on the Palatine & Capitoline area (Temple of Concord, Temple of Victory) in structure and function?

Coarelli, F. (1974) “Public building between the Second Punic War and Sulla” PBSR 45 1977 1-23.

Cornell, T. (1995) The Beginnings of Rome. 265-71304-9.

- Chapter 2 in Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City. H.Dodge (ed).

DeRose Evans, J. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Roman Republic (esp Chapters 22,28 & 29)* We may not have this book in the library but you can preview nearly all the relevant material on Amazon.

Favro, D. (1994) “The Street Triumphant: The Urban impact of Roman Triumphal Parades” in Favro (ed). Streets of the World: Critical perspectives on Public Space.

Harris, W.V. (1979) War and Imperialism in Republican Rome.

Holloway R.R. (1994) The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium.

J-P Morel, ‘ The transformation of Italy 300-133BC. The evidence of archaeology, Cambridge Ancient HistoryVIII, 2nd ed. (1989) 477-516.

Orlin, E. Temples, Religion and Politics (chapter 1,2 &4).

J. Pollitt (1986) Art in the Hellenistic Age, (esp. Chs 7, 11). CUP: Cambridge. [N 5610.P6]

F. Sear (1998 - earlier editions also available) Roman Architecture, Batsford: London - chs. 2 (‘Republican Rome’) and 3 (‘Roman Building types’), esp. pp. 11-12, 20-22 and 30-31. [NA 310.S3]

J. Ruepke (2006) 'Communicating with the gods', in N. Rosenstein and R. Morstein-Marx, eds, A Companion to the Roman Republica pp.215-35

M. Torelli (2006) 'The topography and archaeology of Republican Rome', in N. Rosenstein and R. Morstein-Marx, eds, A Companion to the Roman Republic pp.81-101

Smith, C., (1996) Early Rome and Latium. Economy and Society c. 1000-500 BC.

2012 Imperialism, Cultural Politics and Polybius (ed.) OUP.

J.E., Stambaugh, ‘The Functions of the Roman temple’, ANRW II 16.1 554-608.

Stamper, J.W. (2005) The Architecture of Roman Temples: The Republic to the middle Empire. Chapters 2-4 esp.

Stek, T.D. (2009) Cult Places and Cultural Change in Republican Italy: A contextual approach.

D.E. Strong, and J.B. Ward-Perkins (1962), ‘The Temple of Castor in the Forum Romanum’, Papers of the British School at Rome 30, 1-30. [Arts periodical]

Zoilkowski, A. (1992) The Temples of Mid Republican Rome.*Read review by E. Thomas in The Classical Review (1995) 380-382.

-(1998) “Mummius’ Temple of Hercules Victor and the Rounds temple on the Tiber’ Phoenix 42, 1988, 309-33. JSTOR


3. Was it Rome's roads or her sewers that had the most important role in shaping urban life?

Primary sources: Frontinus, The Strategems and the Aqueducts of Rome (Loeb translation)

P.J. Aicher (1995) Guide to the aqueducts of ancient Rome (Wauconda, Ill.: Bolchazy-Carducci)

C. Bruun (1991), The Water Supply of Ancient Rome: A Study of Roman Imperial Administration (Helsinki) [TD 216.B7]

N. Rothstein (ed) Companion to the Roman Republic (Chapters 3 and 28). ebook.

E. Gowers (1995) 'The Anatomy of Rome from Capitol to Cloaca' JRS 85 23-32. [JSTOR]

H. B .Evans (1982), "Agrippa’s water plan" in American Journal of Archaeology 86, 401-11. [Arts Pderiodicals]

H.B. Evans (1994) Water Distribution in Ancient Rome: the evidence of Frontinus (Ann Arbor) [TD 398.E9

A.T. Hodge (1989) ‘Aqueducts’, in I.M. Barton Roman Public Buildings 127-51: good technical introduction.

C.F. Norena (2006) 'Water distribution and the residential topography of Augustan Rome', in Haselberger & Humphrey, eds Imaging Ancient Rome (JRA suppl.61) 91-105.

N. Hopkins, The Cloaca Maxima and the Monumental Manipulation of Water in Archaic Rome. weblink

O.F. Robinson, Ancient Rome: City Planning and Admnistration [NA 9092.R6]

Ray Laurence (1999) The Roads of Roman Italy: mobility and cultural change, Routledge, [DG 28.5 L2.]

Oleson, J.P. (1998) Greek and Roman Technology sourcebook [T. 16 H8]

(2008) "The Oxford Handbook of engineering and technology in the Classical World" [T16.O8.] ebook.

A. Scobie (1986), 'Slums, sanitation, and mortality in the Roman World; Klio 399- 433. [JSTOR]

F. Sear (1998 - earlier editions also available) Roman Architecture, Batsford: London. [NA 310.S3]

R. Taylor (2000) Public needs and private pleasures: water distribution, the Tiber river and the urban development of ancient Rome (Rome, “L’Erma” di Bretschneider) [on order at library]


4. How does Augustus' building programme present Rome as the centre of the universe?

Res Gestae Divi Augusti - available in Eck 2002 (Appendix), Cooley 2003 (Section A), Chisholm 1981 (pp. 3-10) and P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore (1967) Res Gestae Divi Augusti (Oxford) [DG 279.M6]; Cooley (2008) edition and commentary on RGDA.

M. Boatwright (1986) ‘The Pomerial Extension of Augustus’, Historia 35: 13-27.

K. Chisholm (1981), Rome: the Augustan Age. OUP: Oxford. (Sourcebook). [DG 279.C4]

M.G.L. Cooley, ed. (2003), The Age of Augustus (LACTOR 17) - section K [DG 279.A4]

W. Eck (2002), Augustus (Blackwell) - chapter 13 [DG 279.E2]

Elsner, J. (1991), ‘Cult and Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Ara Pacis Augustae’, JRS 81: 50-61. JSTOR

D. Favro (1993), ‘Reading the Augustan city’, in P.J. Holliday (ed.) Narrative and Event in Ancient Art [PA6029.M6]

(1996), The Urban Image of Augustan Rome. CUP: Cambridge. [DG 63.F2]

K. Galinsky (1996), Augustan Culture [DG 272.G2]

L. Haselberger (2000), 'Imaging Augustan Rome', Journal of Roman Archaeology 13, 515-28.

L. Haselberger (2002), Mapping Augustan Rome (Journal of Roman Archaeology suppl. no. 50) [Oversize DG 66.M2]

(2007) Urbem adornare: die Stadt Rom und ihre Gestaltumwandlung undter Augustus/ Rome's Urban Metamorphosis under Augustus (JRA suppl. 64)

Heslin, P. (2007) ‘Augustus, Domitian and the So-called Horologium Augusti’, Journal of Roman Studies 97, 1-20. JSTOR

Kellum, B. (1985), ‘Sculptural Programs and Propaganda in Augustan Rome: The Temple of Apollo on the Palatine’, in R. Winkes (ed.), The Age of Augustus (Louvain) 170-6*

Koeppel, G. (1985), ‘The Role of Pictorial Models in the Creation of the Historical Relief during the Age of Augustus’, in R. Winkes (ed.), The Age of Augustus (Louvain) 89-106*

_______(1985), ‘Empire Imagery in Augustan Architecture’, in R. Winkes (ed.), The Age of Augustus (Louvain) 137-48*

**_______(1985), ‘Private Portraiture in the Age of Augustus’, in R. Winkes (ed.), The Age of Augustus (Louvain) 107-35*
_______(1992), Roman Sculpture (Yale).

Kleiner, F. (1988), ‘The Arch in Honor of C. Octavius and the Fathers of Augustus’, Historia 37: 347-57
**_______(1989) ‘The Study of Roman Triumphal and Honorary Arches 50 Years after Kaehler’, JRA 2: 195-206*

T.J. Luce (1990), 'Livy, Augustus and the Forum Augustum', in K.A. Raaflaub and M. Toher, eds. Between Republic and Empire, 123-138. University of California Press: Berkeley[DG 279.B3]

J.R. Patterson (1992), ‘Review article. The City of Rome: from Republic to Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 82, 190-194.

N. Purcell (1995), ‘Forum Romanum (The Imperial Period)’ in E.M. Steinby, ed. Lexixon Topographicum Urbis Romae vol. II, 336-42 [Reference DG 63.L3]

N. Purcell (1996), 'Rome and its development under Augustus and his successors' in CAH X, 782-811. CUP: Cambridge. [D 57.C2]

C.B. Rose, (1990), ‘“Princes” and Barbarians on the Ara Pacis’, AJA 94: 453-67. JSTOR

S. Walker (2000), 'The moral museum: Augustus and the city of Rome', in J. Coulston and H. Dodge, Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City, 61-75. Oxford. [DG 65.A6]

A. Wallace-Hadrill (1993), Augustan Rome. Bristol Classical Press: Bristol. [DG279.W2]

G. Woolf, (2012) Rome: an Empire's story. OUP [JC89 W.66] ebook.

*** Victoria Jewell's 1st class dissertation on Color in the Ancient world, see esp. T. Mars Ultor in Chapter 2

The Impact of Colour on the Roman City by Vicky Jewell


5. What insights do houses and apartments in Rome and Ostia provide about the experience of living in Rome?

Primary Accounts: Juvenal, Satires 1, 3, 6 ; Martial, Epigrams 1.70, 86, 108, 117; 3.14, 38; 4.5, 8; 5.20, 22; 12.18, 57

* see also Seminar 3 Bibliography

Barton, I. M., ed., Roman Domestic Buildings (1996)

L. Casson (1998), Everyday Life in Ancient Rome (Baltimore)

G. Calza & G. Becatti, Ostia (Rome) [DG 70 08].

Clarke, J.R., The Houses of Roman Italy (1991).

Ellis, S. P., Roman Housing (2000).

B.W. Frier (1977) ‘The Rental Market in Early Imperial Rome’, Journal of Roman Studies 67: 27–37.[JSTOR]
B.W. Frier (1980) Landlords and Tenants in Imperial Rome (Princeton University Press, Princeton). [KE 207.F7]

P. Garnsey (1976), ‘Urban Property Investment’, in M. I. Finley (ed.), Studies in Roman Property; 123-36

Hales, S. The Roman House and Social Identity (Cambridge, 2003)

Laurence, R. & Wallace-Hadrill, A., Domestic Space in the Roman World (1997)

R. Laurence (1997) ‘Writing the Roman Metropolis’, in H. Parkins (ed.) Roman Urbanism Ch. 1. [DG 78.R6]

N. Morley (1996), Metropolis & Hinterland: City of Rome & Italian Economy, 200 B.C. -- A.D. 200 - ch. 2, ‘The demographic burden’, esp. pp. 39-46. [DG 63.M6]

*R. Meiggs, Roman Ostia (2nd ed. 1973: Oxford University Press: Oxford), chapters 2, 13 [DG 70.08 + e-book]

McKay, A. M., Houses, Villas and Palaces in the Roman World (paperback ed. 1998) [available bygoogleboocks]

J. Packer, ‘Housing and population in imperial Ostia and Rome’, Journal of Roman studies 57 (1967) 80-95 [JSTOR]

Packer, J. E. (1971) The insulae of imperial Ostia. MAAR 31. Rome, The American Academy in Rome.

J. Patterson in Ancient Rome (eds) Coulston and Dodge. “Living and death in ancient Rome” 260-280.

R. Laurence (ed.) (2011) Rome, Ostia, Pompeii Movement and Space.

OUP [DG 77. R6.]

W. Scheidel (2003), "Germs for Rome" in C. Edwards & G. Woolf (ed.), Rome the Cosmopolis, ch. 8 (pp. 158-76). [DG 63.R6]

**A. Scobie (1986), Slums, sanitation and mortality in the Roman world, Klio 68; pp. 399-433. [JSTOR]

B. D. Shaw (1996), ‘Seasons of Death: Aspects of Mortality in Imperial Rome’, JRS 86; pp. 100-138.[JSTOR]

G.R. Storey (2002) ‘Regionaries-Type Insulae 2: Architectural and residential units at Rome’ American Journal of Archaeology 106; pp. 411-34 [Arts Periodicals]

** T.P. Wiseman (1987), ‘Conspicui Postes Tectaque Digna Deo: The Public Image of Aristocratic and Imperial Houses in the Late Republic and Early Empire’, in C. Pietri (ed.), L’Urbs, Espace urbain et histoire (Rome) 475-89.*

Z. Yavetz (1958), ‘The Living Conditions of the Urban Plebs’, Latomus 17: 500–517. [Arts periodical] Also reprinted in R. Seager (1969), The Crisis of the Roman Republic, 162–179. [DG 254.S3]


6. Was there an architectural revolution under the emperor Nero?

Primary sources: Suetonius’ Nero 31; Tacitus’Annales 15. 38-43; Pliny NH 33.54;34.84; 35.120; 36.111;36.163; Seneca, Letters 90.15.

L.F. Ball, (1994) ‘ A reappraisal of Nero’s Domus Aurea’ in Rome Papers ( JRA Supplement 11 (1994) 183-254.

- The Domus Aurea and Architectural Revolution.

Griffin, M. (1987), Nero (London).

Boëthius, A. (1960), The Golden House of Nero (Ann Arbor)

P.J. Aicher (1995) Guide to the aqueducts of ancient Rome (Wauconda, Ill.: Bolchazy-Carducci)
C. Bruun (1991), The Water Supply of Ancient Rome: A Study of Roman Imperial Administration (Helsinki) [TD 216.B7]

Elsner, J. (1994), ‘Constructing Decadence. The Representation of Nero as Imperial Builder’, in id. and J. Masters (eds.), Reflections of Nero (London)

H. Dodge (2000) ‘Greater than the pyramids: the water supply of ancient Rome’, in J. Coulston and H. Dodge (eds), Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City, 166-209 (Oxbow Books: Oxford).

Janet Delaine in H. Doge and J. Coulston Ancient Rome 119-137.

H. B .Evans (1982), "Agrippa’s water plan" in American Journal of Archaeology 86, 401-11.
H.B. Evans (1994) Water Distribution in Ancient Rome: the evidence of Frontinus (Ann Arbor) [TD 398.E9]

A.T. Hodge (1989) ‘Aqueducts’, in I.M. Barton Roman Public Buildings 127-51: good technical introduction.

C.F. Norena (2006) 'Water distribution and the residential topography of Augustan Rome', in Haselberger & Humphrey, eds Imaging Ancient Rome (JRA suppl.61) 91-105.

W.L. Macdonald, The Architecture of the Roman Empire vols. I and II.(1986)
F. Sear (1998 - earlier editions also available) Roman Architecture, Batsford: London. [NA 310.S3]

R. Taylor (2000) Public needs and private pleasures: water distribution, the Tiber river and the urban development of ancient Rome (Rome, “L’Erma” di Bretschneider) [on order at library]

P.L. Tucci (2006) 'Ideology and technology in Rome's water supply: castella, the toponym AQVEDVCTVM and supply to the Palatine and Caelian hills', JRA 19: 92-120.

R.J.A. Wilson (1996)‘Tot aquarum tam multis necessariis molibus...Recent studies on aqueducts and water supply’, in Journal of Roman Archaeology 9: 5-29. [Arts periodicals]

Thornton, M. K. (1986), ‘Julio-Claudian Building Programs: Eat, Drink and Be Merry’, Historia 35: 28-44
_______and Thornton, R. C. (1989), Julio-Claudian Building Programs (Waucauda, Il.)


Term 2 Essay Deadline is Monday 20 February (week 7) at 12 noon.


1. How are social hierarchies reflected in Roman entertainment buildings?

NB - use the topographical dictionaries for details on individual monuments

General
Barton, C. A. (1993) The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The Gladiator and the Monster (Princeton: Princeton University Press) [DG 78.B2] ch.1
Coleman, K. (2000) 'Entertaining Rome', 210-58 in Coulston, J. and H. Dodge, Ancient Rome. The Archaeology of the Eternal City (Oxford) [DG 65.A6]
Coleman, K. (2011) 'Public entertainments' in M. Peachin, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World
Lomas, K. and T. Cornell, eds (2002) Bread and Circuses (Routledge, London) (espec. chapters by Holleran and Coleman) [DG 95.B7]

Amphitheatres
Barton, C. A. (1993) The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The Gladiator and the Monster (Princeton: Princeton University Press) [DG 78.B2] ch.1
Beard, M. & Hopkins, K. (2005) The Colosseum [DG 68.1.H6]
Fagan, G. (2011) The lure of the arena: social psychology and the crowd at the Roman games [HF 4062.5.F2]
Futrell, A. (1997) Blood in the Arena. The Spectacle of Roman Power (University of Texas Press, Austin) [DG 95.F8] 'The imperial games'
Welch, K. (1991), ‘Roman Amphitheatres revived’ Journal of Roman Archaeology 1: 272-81.
Welch, K. (2003) The Roman Amphitheatre from its origins to the Colosseum [NA 313.W4]

Theatres
Beacham, R. (1991) The Roman theatre and its audience (Routledge, London) [PA 6067.B3]
Slater, W.J., ed. (1996) Roman Theater and Society (Ann Arbor) [PA 6067.R6]
Gagliardo, M.C. and J. Packer (2006) ‘A New Look at Pompey’s Theatre: History, Documentation, and Recent Excavation’, American Journal of Archaeology 110.1, 93-122.[Arts Periodical].

Lancaster, L.C. (1998), ‘Reconstructing the restorations of the Colosseum after the fire of 217 AD’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 11: 46-74.
Parker, H.N. (1999) ‘The observed of all observers: spectacle, applause and cultural poetics in the Roman theatre audience’, in B. Bergmann and C. Kondoleon (eds) The art of ancient spectacle (Washington: National Gallery of Art) 163-79 [GT 4851.A7]

Rawson, E. (1987) 'Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis', Papers of the British School at Rome 55: 83-113

Circuses
Humphrey, J.H. (1986) Roman Circuses [DG 95.H8]
Rose, P. (2005) 'Spectators and spectator comfort in Roman entertainment buildings: a study in functional design', PBSR 73: 99-130
Wiseman, T. P. (1974), ‘The Circus Flaminius’, PBSR 42: 3-26

2. What were the most significant developments in supplying Rome’s urban population?

Key Reading:
Mattingly, D. and Aldrete, G. (2000) 'The feeding of imperial Rome: the mechanics of the food supply system', in Coulston, J. and H. Dodge, Ancient Rome. The Archaeology of the Eternal City (Oxford) [DG 65.A6]
Parkin, H. (1997) 'The consumer city domesticated? The Roman city in elite economic strategies', in Roman Urbanism. Beyond the Consumer City, ed. H.M. Parkins (Routledge: London & New York) pp.83-111 + e-book
Rickman, G. (1971) Roman Granaries and Store Buildings, Cambridge University Press [NA 325.G7]
Rickman, G. (1971) The corn supply of ancient Rome; Clarendon Press: Oxford [DG 105.R4 + e-book]

General Reading:

Greene, K. (1986) The Archaeology of the Roman Economy, Batsford: London, chap.1 [DG 85.G7]
Harris, W.V. (1993) (ed.) The inscribed economy : production and distribution in the Roman empire in the light of instrumentum domesticum : the proceedings of a conference held at the American Academy in Rome on 10-11 January, 1992, University of Michigan [Oversize: HC 39.I57]
Scheidel, W. (2012) (ed.) The Cambridge companion to the Roman economy, Cambridge University Press [HC39.C36]
Scheidel, W., Morris, I., Saller, R. (2008) The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World
Temin, P. (c. 2013) The Roman Market Economy, Princeton University Press [HC39.T46]

Transport:
Casson, L. (1965) 'Harbour and river boats of ancient Rome', Journal of Roman Studies 55: 31-39
Duncan-Jones, R.P. (1977) ‘Giant cargo-ships in antiquity’, Classical Quarterly 27: 331-34
Hopkins, K. (1983) ‘Models, Ships and Staples’ in Garnsey, P. and Whittaker, C.R. (eds.), Trade and Famine in Classical Antiquity pp. 84-109. [DE 61.E2]

Ostia:
Ostia: Guide to the Excavations pp.20-21, 26, 52 [DG 70 08]
Calza, G. and Becatti, G. Ostia (Rome) pp.9-12, 17-18 [DG 70 08]
Meiggs, R. (1973) Roman Ostia (2nd ed. 1973: Oxford University Press: Oxford), chapters 2, 13 [DG 70.08 + e-book]
Vitelli, G. (1980) Grain Storage and Urban Growth in Imperial Ostia: A Quantitative Study, World Archaeology, Vol. 12, No. 1, Classical Archaeology (Jun., 1980), pp. 54-68 [JStor]

Portus:
Keay, S. et al., (2005) Portus: an archaeological survey of the port of Imperial Rome [DG 70.P73]
Rickman, G.E. (1996) ‘Portus in perspective’, in Roman Ostia Revisited, eds A. Gallina Zevi & A. Claridge (British School at Rome: London 1996) 281-91 [DG 70.08]

3. To what extent were ‘foreign cults’ accepted into the public space of Rome?

Roman religion - general

Adkins, R. and Adkins, L. (2001) Dictionary of Roman Religion [BL 802.A3]
Ando, C. (2003) Roman Religion (Edinburgh Univ Press) [BL 802.R6]
Beard, M., North, J., Price, S. (1998) Religions of Rome 2 vols [BL 802.B3] esp. vol. 1, ch.7
\Lane Fox, R. L. (1986) Pagans and Christians [BR 182.L2]
MacMullen, R. (1981) Paganism in the Roman Empire [BL 802.M2]
MacMullen, R. (1984) Christianizing the Roman Empire [BR 170.M2]
North, J. (2000) Roman Religion (G&R New Surveys 30) [BL 801.N6]
North, J. A. and Price, S. R. F. (eds.) (2011) The religious history of the Roman Empire: pagans, Jews, and Christians, Oxford University Press [BL 803.R62]
Rives, J.B. (2007) Religion in the Roman Empire (Blackwell) [BL 803.R4]
Rüpke, J. (ed.) (2007) A companion to Roman religion, Blackwell Pub [BL 803.C66] Electronic resource
Rüpke, J. (2010) 'Religious Pluralism', in Barchiesi, A. and Scheidel, W., eds, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Studies [DG 209.O94]
Scheid, J. (2003) An introduction to Roman religion (Edinburgh Univ. Press) [BL 803.S2]

'Foreign' gods
Beck, R. (1984) 'Mithraism since Franz Cumont', ANRW II.7.4: 2002-2115 [ DG 210.A8]
Beck, R. (2006) The religion of the Mithras cult in the Roman Empire : mysteries of the unconquered sun [BL 1585.B3] online resource too
Bowden, H. (2010) Mystery cults of the ancient world [BL 610.B69]
Clauss, M. (2000) The Roman cult of Mithras: the god and his mysteries [BL 1585.C8]
Gasparro, G. S. (1985) Soteriology and mystic aspects in the cult of Cybele and Attis [BL 820.C8]
Orlin, E. (2010) Foreign cults in Rome [electronic resource] : creating a Roman Empire
Roller, L. E. (c.1999) In search of god the mother : the cult of Anatolian Cybele [BL 820.C8]
Rüpke, J. (ed.) (2007) A companion to Roman religion, Blackwell Pub [BL 803.C66]
Speidel, M. (1980) Mithras-Orion: Greek Hero and Roman Army God [BL 1585.S7]
Turcan, R. (1996) The cults of the Roman Empire [BL 805.T8]
Witt, R. E. (1997) Isis in the Ancient World [BL 2450.I8]
Witt, R. E. (1971) Isis in the Graeco-Roman world [BL 2450.I8]

4. Were Christian funerary monuments noticeably different from ‘pagan’ funerary monuments in Rome?

NB see also 'Roman religion - general' under question 3

Key Reading:
Davies, P.J.E. (2000) Death and the emperor (Cambridge) [NB 1875.D2] pp.27-34, 127-135
Hope, V.M. (2009) Roman Death: dying and the dead in ancient Rome [DG 103.H68]
Patterson, J. R. (2000) 'Living and Dying in the City of Rome: houses and tombs' - pages 259-289 in Mattingly, D. & G. Patterson, J. (1992) ‘Patronage, collegia and burial in Imperial Rome’, in S. Bassett, (ed.) Death in towns: urban responses to the dying and the dead, 100-1600 (Leicester: Leicester University Press) 15-27 [GT 3243.D3

General Reading:
Carroll, M. (2006) Spirits of the Dead: Roman funerary commemoration in Western Europe (OUP) [DG 103.C2
Colvin, H. M. (1991) Architecture and the after-life (New Haven, London: Yale University Press) [NA 6162.C6
Elsner, J. and Huskinson, J. (2011) Life, death, and representation: some new work on Roman sarcophagi [NB 1810.L47]
Graham, E-J. (2006) The Burial of the Urban Poor in Italy in the Late Roman Republic and Early Empire (BAR 1565)
Hope, V. M. and Marshall, E. eds. (2000), Death and disease in the ancient city (London: Routledge) – esp. chapters by Patterson, Hope, Bodel and Lindsay. [DE 61.D3]
Huskinson, J. (1996) Roman Children’s Sarcophagi: their Decoration and its Social Significance [NB 1810.H8
Oliver, G.J. (2000) The Epigraphy of Death
Pearce, J. et al, eds (2000) Burial, society and context in the Roman world (Oxford: Oxbow) [DG 103.B8]
Walker, S. (1985) Memorials to the Roman dead (London: British Museum) [DG 103.W2]

Sourcebook:
Hope, V.M. (2007) Death in Ancient Rome: A Sourcebook [DG 103.H6 + e-book]

5. How were the ideologies of the late Roman emperors reflected in the fabric of the city of Rome?

NB - use the topographical dictionaries for details on individual monuments
Barnes, T. (1982). The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine.
Corcoran, S. (1996). The Empire of the Tetrarchs: Imperial Pronouncements and Government, AD 284–324.

Ewald, B.C. & Norena, C.F. (eds). (2010). The Emperor and Rome: Space, Representation, and Ritual.

Harris, W.V. et al (eds). (1999). The Transformation of Urbs Roma in Late Antiquity.

Hekster, O. (1999). ‘The city of Rome in late imperial ideology: The Tetrarchs, Maxentius, and Constantine’, Mediterraneo Antico 2.2, 717-48.

Kelly, G. & Grig, L. (eds). (2012). Two Romes: Rome and Constantinople in Late Antiquity.

Leadbetter, B. (2009). Galerius and the Will of Diocletian.
Mitchell, S. (2015). A History of the later Roman empire, AD 284-641.

Rapp, C. & Drake, H.A. (2014). The city in the classical and post-classical world: changing contexts of power and identity.

Rees, R. (1993). 'Images and Image: A Re-exmination of Tetrarchic Iconography', G&R 40.2, 181-200.

Rees, R. (2004). Diocletian and the Tetrarchy.
Williams, S. (1985). Diocletian and the Roman Recovery.