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Chronology of Deviance

Eleventh Century

1066 Massacre of Jews at Granada
1071 Seljurk Turks defeat the Byzantines at the battle of Manzikert
1095 Pope Urban II preaches crusade at the Council of Clermont
1096 Attacks on Jews in Germany coincide with the commencement of the First Crusade
1098 Foundation of the Order of St Lazarus
1099 The Crusaders capture Jerusalem

Twelfth Century

1144 Blood libel: William of Norwich
Bernard of Clairvaux preaches in southern France against Catharism and the followers of Henry of Lausanne
Pope Eugene III calls for a Second Crusade
1147 A Christian army captures Lisbon from the Moors
1161 Henry II of England passes ordinances in an attempt to regulate London's prostitutes
1179 Third Lateran Council condemns Waldensians, Cathars and sodomy; passes canons concerning lepers, Jews and Muslims
1182 Philip II of France expels the Jews
Synod of Verona orders bishops to seek out heretics and hand them over to the secular authority
Pope Lucius III excommunicates Peter Valdes
1187 Saladin defeats the Christians at Hattin and recaptures Jerusalem, leading to the Third Crusade (1189-92)
1189 The coronation of Richard I of England coincides with an attack on London's Jews
1190 Massacre of Jews at York
1198 Philip II of France readmits the Jews
1199 Pope Innocent III authorises the Cistercians to engage the Cathars in disputation

Thirteenth Century

1204 The Fourth Crusade ends in the sack of Constantinople
1208 Murder of Pierre de Castelnau, papal legate
Albigensian Crusade commences; sack of Béziers; expulsion of Cathars from Carcassonne
Francis of Assisi founds the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
1212 The Christians defeat the Moors at the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
1213 Crusaders under Simon de Montfort defeat King Peter of Aragon at the battle of Muret
1214 Dominic of Guzman founds the Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
Fourth Lateran Council sets out due process against heretics
Jews and Muslims are ordered to wear distinctive dress and not to appear in public for the last four days of Holy Week
1229 Treaty of Paris ends the Albigensian Crusade
1244 Fall of the Cathar stronghold of Montségur
1254 Louis IX of France attempts to abolish prostitution
1255 Blood libel: little Hugh of Lincoln
1264 Bolesłaus V, Duke of Greater Poland grants the Statute of Kalisz, a set of privileges for Jews
1275 English Statute of Jewry forbids usury and orders Jews to wear a yellow star
1290 Edward I expels the Jews from England
1291 Fall of Acre to the Mamluk Turks effectively ends the Crusades

Fourteenth Century

c.1300 Marguerite Porete writes the mystical work The Mirror of Simple Souls
1306 Philip IV expels the Jews from France
1307 Arrest of the Knights Templar
1308 Dante Alighieri begins writing The Divine Comedy
1309 Clement V is elected Pope but refuses to travel to Rome, commencing the Avignon Papacy
1311-12 Council of Vienne condemns the Brethren of the Free Spirit
1314 Execution of Jacques de Molay
1315 Louis X readmits Jews into France
1320-21 Shepherd's Crusade
1322 Charles IV expels the Jews from France
1324 Execution of the Cathar leader Guillaume Bélibaste
1334 Casimir III, King of Poland, reaffirms the Statute of Kalisz
c.1342 Richard Rolle writes the mystical work The Fire of Love
1347-51 The Black Death
Massacres of Jews in many cities including Basle, Berne, Chillon, Colmar, Frankfurt, Lausanne, Mainz, Speyer, Strasbourg, Stuttgart and Zürich
Pope Clement VI defends the Jews against accusations of well-poisoning and plague-spreading
1349 Pope Clement VI condemns the flagellants
1354 Ottoman Turks cross the Dardanelles at Gelibolu (Gallipoli)
1358 The peasants' revolt known as the Jacquerie breaks out in France
1359 John II readmits the Jews into France
1360 Venice establishes a municipal brothel
c.1366 Mystical marriage of Catherine of Siena
1378 The election of a Pope at Rome and another at Avignon begins the Western Schism
1381 Peasants' Revolt in England
1382 The Blackfriars Council condemns twenty-four propositions of John Wyclif
c.1385 Walter Hilton writes the mystical work The Ladder of Perfection
1389 The Ottoman Turks defeat the Serbians at the battle of Kosovo
c.1390 An anonymous author writes the mystical work The Cloud of Unknowing
1394 Charles VI expels the Jews from France
c.1394 Julian of Norwich writes her Book of Shewings
1395 Trial of John Rykener
The Ottoman Turks defeat a Christian army at the battle of Nicopolis
Frankfurt opens a municipal brothel

Fifteenth Century

1401 The English Parliament passes a statute authorising the burning of heretics; William Sawtre is the first Lollard martyr
c.1403 Bethlem hospital in London begins to keep psychiatric patients
1403 Florence opens a municipal brothel
1405 Christine of Pisan writes The Book of the City of Ladies
1409 The Council of Pisa elects a third pope
Sir John Oldcastle's revolt
The Council of Constance convenes
The Council of Constance burns Jan Hus at the stake for heresy
The Council of Constance deposes the three existing popes and elects Martin V, ending the Western Schism
Sir John Oldcastle is caught and burnt as a Lollard heretic
c.1418 Thomas à Kempis writes The Imitation of Christ 
1419-31 The Hussite Wars in Bohemia
1421 Siena opens a municipal brothel
1423 Venice builds the Lazzaretto Vecchio
1428-31 Around eighty people are prosecuted for Lollardy in East Anglia and Kent; there are eight executions
1429 Joan of Arc relieves Orléans and defeats the English at the battle of Patay
1431 Execution of Joan of Arc
Munich opens a municipal brothel
Portuguese round Cape Bojador and begin to explore sub-Saharan Africa
The Utraquists defeat the Taborites at the battle of Lipany
1435 Pope Eugenius IV condemns the enslavement of the Canary Islanders by the Portuguese
1436 An independent Hussite Church is established in Bohemia
1438 Margery Kempe completes her autobiography
Execution of Gilles de Rais, child serial-killer
Thirty-four people in Surrey and Hampshire abjure Lollardy; one is executed
1441 Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester, convicted of treasonable necromancy
1452 Pope Nicholas V authorises Alfonso V of Portugal to enslave 'Saracens and pagans'
1453 The Ottoman Turks under Mehmed II capture Constantinople
1454 Anti-Jewish rioting in Silesia follows the preaching of John of Capistrano
1462-64 Around thirty people are prosecuted for Lollardy in the Diocese of Lincoln; two are executed (one as a relapsed heretic in 1474)
1465-69 Paolo Uccello paints the sequence of the Miracle of the Desecrated Host on the Guild of Corpus Domini predella at Urbino
1469 Strasbourg opens a municipal brothel
c.1470 Venice builds the Lazzaretto Nuovo
1471 Marsilio Ficino publishes his Latin translation of the Hermetica, a set of Hellenic wisdom texts
1475 Blood libel: Simon of Trento
1478 The Spanish Inquisition is established
1480 The Turks briefly occupy Otranto (on the Italian mainland)
Eight Coventry Lollards are forced to abjure.
Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger publish The Hammer of Witches
Thirteen people abjure Lollardy in Newbury, Berkshire
Christopher Columbus 'discovers' the Americas
Granada falls to Ferdinand and Isabella, completing the Reconquista
The Alhambra decree: the expulsion of Jews from Spain
Ulrich Molitor publishes Of Witches and Women Diviners
Expulsion of Jews from Sicily
Thirty people are accused of Lollardy in Scotland
The first cases of syphilis are identified, in Naples
1495 Grand Duke Alexander Jagiellon expels the Jews from Lithuania
1496-1506 Sporadic persecution of Lollards in London and the Thames Valley; all abjure but one relapses in 1508 and is burnt
1497 Forced conversion of Portuguese Jews
1498 Execution of Girolamo Savonarola for heresy

Sixteenth Century

1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral 'discovers' Brazil
1502 Forced conversion of Castilian Moors
1503 Grand Duke Alexander Jagiellon readmits the Jews into Lithuania
1506 Massacre of 'New Christians' at Lisbon
1509 Johann Pfefferkorn, a converted Jew, convinces the Emperor Maximilian to begin confiscating Jewish books
1510 Publication of the anonymous Book of Vagrants
1510-11 More than fifty people from London and Kent and prosecuted for Lollardy; five are burnt as heretics
The Hebrew Philologist Johann Reuchlin defends Jewish literature against Johann Pfefferkorn
Around sixty Lollards from the Chilterns/Thames Valley area are forced to abjure; four are burnt as heretics
1511-12 More than forty-five people from Coventry abjure Lollardy; one is burnt
1512 Birth of the 'Ravenna monster' in Bologna
1513 The Dominican prior Jacob von Hochstraten hauls Johann Reuchlin before the Inquisition
1516 Jewish ghetto established in Venice
May Day riot against foreigners in London
Martin Luther produces his Ninety-five Theses, starting the Protestant Reformation
Seven Coventry Lollards are convicted of heresy and burnt at the stake
Matteo of Bassi founds the Capuchin Order of Friars
Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther; there is a public book-burning of Luther's works in London
Ottoman Turks under Suleiman the Magnificent capture Belgrade
1521-22 Around fifty Lollards from the Chilterns/Thames Valley area are forced to abjure; four are burnt as heretics
The Ottoman Turks capture Rhodes
The Affair of the Sausages steers Zürich in a reformed direction under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli
Birth of the 'monk-calf' in Freiburg
Erasmus writes a colloquy satirising those who had opposed the (recently deceased) Johann Reuchlin
Martin Luther publishes That Jesus Christ was Born a Jew
Juan Luis Vives writes On the Education of a Christian Woman
The great fire of Troyes
Erasmus writes colloquies satirising exorcists, alchemists and Franciscan friars; he calls the latter, 'well to-do beggars'
1524-25 German Peasants' Revolt
The Ottoman Turks defeat the Hungarians at the battle of Mohács
Forced conversion of Aragonese Moors
William Tyndale's New Testament in English is publicly burnt as heretical
Swiss Anabaptists produce the Schleitheim Confession
Patrick Hamilton is burnt as a heretic at St Andrews: Scotland's first Protestant martyr
The Ottoman Turks unsuccessfully besiege Vienna
Several princes and Imperial Free Cities present their Protestation at the Imperial Diet at Speyer
Basel becomes Protestant under the leadership of Johannes Oecolampadius
The Lutheran princes present the Augsburg Confession to the Imperial Diet at Augsburg
Thomas Hitton is burnt at the stake as a heretic at Maidstone: England's first Protestant martyr
Foundation of the Schmalkaldic League of German Protestants
1531-33 Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa writes Three Books Concerning Occult Philosophy
1533 Henry VIII of England breaks with Rome and asserts himself as 'Supreme Head of the Church'
Execution of Elizabeth Barton for treason
Ignatius Loyola founds the Jesuits
Affair of the Placards in Paris; John Calvin flees to Basel
1534-35 Münster Rebellion
Execution of William Tyndale
Portuguese Inquisition established
Pilgrimage of Grace in England
John Calvin writes the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion
The French and Ottomans agree an alliance against the Holy Roman Empire
1536-1540 Dissolution of the monasteries in England
1537 Pope Paul III forbids the enslavement of Amerindians
1538 The Franciscan John Forrest is burnt as a heretic
1540 Henry VIII of England executes three prominent Protestants for heresy and three Catholics for treason on the same day
1542 The English Parliament passes a short-lived act making witchcraft a felony
1543 Martin Luther publishes On the Jews and their Lies 
1545 Massacre of Waldensians at Mérindol
1545-63 Council of Trent (three sessions)
Execution of Étienne Dolet for atheism
Henry VIII of England closes the Stews
1546-47 War of the Schmalkaldic League; ends with the decisive battle of Mühlberg
As part of the dissolution of chantries, Edward VI of England closes a number of almshouses
1549 Prayer Book Rebellion in Cornwall and Devon
1550 Execution of Joan Bocher for heresy
c.1550 The Portuguese begin to use African slaves to work sugar plantations in Brazil
Barbary Corsairs enslave the entire population of Gozo in the Mediterranean
Execution of Michael Servetus in Geneva for heresy
Edward VI of England grants Bridewell Palace as a poorhouse
Barbary corsairs raid southern Italy capturing thousands of slaves
Peace of Augsburg attempts the coexistence of Protestants and Catholics in the Empire
Jewish ghetto established in Rome
Mary I of England executes nearly 300 Protestants for heresy including Hugh Latimer, Nicholas Ridley and Thomas Cranmer (the Oxford martyrs)
John Knox publishes First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women
The Heptameron, a collection of short stories by Marguerite of Navarre, is published posthumously
Charles IX of France issues an edict abolishing brothels in Paris
Massacre of Huguenots at Vassy ignites the French Wars of Religion
Sir Ralph Holinshed records, 'this year in England were many monstrous births'; Parliament passes a second Witchcraft Act
John Hawkins begins slaving expeditions in Africa
French Huguenot and Catholic factions agree the Peace of Amboise
Johann Weyer publishes The Delusion of Demons
The Scottish Parliament passes a Witchcraft Act
The first of a series of Elizabethan Poor Laws is enacted
Malta repels a siege by the Ottoman Turks
Teresa of Ávila completes her autobiography
Exorcism of Nicole Obry in Laon, France
Thomas Harman publishes Caveat for Common Cursitors
1568 The Dutch Revolt initiates the Eighty Years War
1568-71 Revolt of Moriscos in Granada
Agnes Bowker gives birth to a cat
Revolt of Catholic Northern Earls in England
1571 The Ottoman Turks capture Cyprus, but are decisively beaten at the naval battle of Lepanto
St Bartholomew's Day massacre
Elector Joachim II expels Jews from Brandenburg
Demoniacs Rachel Pinder and Agnes Briggs are exposed as frauds
Martin Frobisher brings three captured Inuits to England as curiosities
John of the Cross is imprisoned by members of his own (Carmelite) order
Jean Bodin publishes The Demon-mania of Sorcerers
Michel de Montaigne publishes the first edition of Essays
Execution of the Jesuit priest Edmund Campion in England for treason
Witch trials in Trier, Germany
Reginald Scott publishes Discoverie of Witchcraft 
Trials of Elana/Elano de Céspedes and Miguel de Piedrola, the ‘soldier prophet’
Christopher Marlowe writes The Jew of Malta
1590-92 North Berwick witch trials
1591 Execution of William 'Frantick' Hacket 
1593-95 Les Croquants: peasants' revolt in south-west France
1595 Nicholas Rémy publishes Three Books of Demonolatry
1597 James VI of Scotland publishes Daemonologie
c.1598 William Shakespeare writes The Merchant of Venice
1598 Edict of Nantes
Execution of Beatrice Cenci for patricide
Execution of Domenico Scandella (Menocchio) for heresy
The French demoniac Marthe Brossier is denounced as a fraud

Seventeenth Century

1600 Execution of Giordano Bruno for heresy
Jean Grenier is convicted of being a werewolf
Witch trials in Fulda, Germany
William Shakespeare writes Macbeth
The Gunpowder Plot: English Catholics attempt to blow up Parliament and kill James I
1609-14 Expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain
Exorcism of several possessed nuns at an Ursuline convent in Aix-en-Provence; the priest Louis Gaufridi is burnt for witchcraft
Emilia Lanyer publishes a collection of poems
1612 Pendle witch trials
Roermond witch trials in the Spanish Netherlands
Publication in France of the anonymous Tragedy of a Moor [who is] cruel to his lord named Riviery
1620 The Bohemian (Hussite) Church comes to an end following Imperial victory at the battle of White Mountain
1621 Elizabeth Sawyer is hung for witchcraft; Wiiliam Rowley, Thomas Dekker and John Ford immediately write The Witch of Edmonton
1624 The Parlement of Paris introduces automatic appeals for witchcraft convictions
1626-31 Witch trials in Würzburg, Germany
1628 The astrologer John Lambe is accused of witchcraft and killed by a London mob
1631 Barbary Corsairs raid the coast of Ireland
1633 Exorcism of several possessed nuns at an Ursuline convent in Loudon, France
1634 Urbain Grandier is burnt at the stake for witchcraft
1644-47 Matthew Hopkins, the self-styled 'Witchfinder General', presides over the Essex witch trials; around 300 women are hung
1646 Thomas Edwards publishes Gangraena
Several nuns at a convent in Louviers, Normandy, claim to be possessed; the priest Thomas Boulle is burnt for witchcraft
Masaniello's revolt against Habsburg rule of Naples
1648-57 Some 100,000 Jews are killed by Ukrainian Cossacks during the Chmielnicki Uprising
George Fox is arrested for blasphemy and ridiculed as a 'quaker'
Pope Innocent X condemns five propositions of Jansenism
Anne Bodenham, a former servant of John Lambe, is convicted of shape-changing and witchcraft
1656 Oliver Cromwell readmits the Jews into England
The great fire of London
Margaret Fell publishes Women's Speaking Justified
1671 Elector William Fredereich readmits Jews into Brandenburg-Prussia
1675 Torsåker witch trials in Sweden
1675-81 Salzburg witch trials in Austria
1676 New Bethlem Hospital built at Moorlands
1676-81 The Affair of the Poisons in France: Louis XIV orders the execution of a number of aristocrats for witchcraft
Louis XIV of France introduces the dragonnade: enforced billeting on Huguenots households
Louis XIV of France issues an edict redefining witchcraft as poisoning, rather than diabolical maleficium
The Bideford witches are hung: the last executions for witchcraft in England
1683 The Ottoman Turks unsuccessfully besiege Vienna
1685 Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
1689 English Act of Toleration
Salem witch trials in Massachusetts; nineteen women are executed
Trial of Theiss of Kaltenbrun, the Livonian werewolf
1693 Anne Palles beheaded and then burnt as a sorceress: the last person executed for witchcraft in Denmark
1699 Publication of the anonymous New Dictionary of Terms, Ancient and Modern, of the Canting Crew

Eighteenth Century

1700 Johann Eisenmenger publishes Judaism Unmasked 
1702-11 Huguenot revolt in the War of the Camisards in the Cévennes.
1704 Anna Eriksdotter is beheaded: the last person executed for witchcraft in Sweden
1709 Louis XIV of France dissolves the Jansenist Abbey of Port-Royal-des-Champs
1712 Jane Wenham is convicted of witchcraft and sentenced to death, but recieves a pardon from Queen Anne
1726 Mother Clap's Molly House is raided
1727 Janet Horne is convicted of witchcraft; the last person to be burnt as a witch in Scotland
1728 John Gay writes The Beggars Opera
c.1732 William Hogarth's A Harlot's Progress
1735 English Witchcraft Act reclassifies witchcraft as a fraud
1739 Execution of Dick Turpin
1750 Maria Pauer is beheaded: the last person to be executed for witchcraft in Austria
1764-67 Two hundred people are attacked by the Beast of Gévaudan, a suspected werewolf
1766 Maria Theresa publishes her Article on Sorcery, Witchcraft, Divination & Similar Activities
1775 Anna Maria Schwägelin is beheaded: the last person executed for witchcraft in Germany
1776 The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth bans witch trials