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Welcome to the QRDC Study's bibliography page. This is an evolving page to share the resources that have informed and supported our research. Below you will find articles, key books, guidelines and webpages that offer deeper insights into our study. We hope they will also be helpful if you are designing remote data collection or teaching research methods.

We would love to know how these resources have been helpful to you. Email:

Articles have been identified by searching ASSIA, PsychInfo and Sociological Abstracts. We have included articles with a focus on methods, published in English since 2000. We have limited the articles to those related to health and/or social care research. To suggest an addition to this list, please email



  • Akyirem, S., Ekpor, E., Aidoo-Frimpong, G. A., Salifu, Y., & Nelson, L. E. (2023). Online interviews for qualitative health research in Africa: a scoping review. International Health.
  • Dubé, M. O., Meziane, R. S., Hudon, A., Cavallo, S., Verduyckt, I., & Zidarov, D. (2023). Virtual Synchronous Qualitative Data Collection Methods Used in Health and Social Sciences: A Scoping Review of Benefits, Challenges and Practical Insights. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 22, Article 16094069231214679.
  • Jones, J. E., Jones, L. L., Calvert, M. J., Damery, S. L., & Mathers, J. M. (2022). A Literature Review of Studies that Have Compared the Use of Face-To-Face and Online Focus Groups. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.
  • Phenwan, T., Sixsmith, J., McSwiggan, L., & Buchanan, D. (2021). A Rapid Review of Internet Mediated Research Methods with People with Dementia: Practical, Technical, and Ethical Considerations. The Qualitative Report, 26(11), 3318-3341.
  • Salzmann-Erikson, M., & Eriksson, H. (2023). A Mapping Review of Netnography in Nursing. Qualitative Health Research.
  • Sood, E., Wysocki, T., Alderfer, M. A., Aroian, K., Christofferson, J., Karpyn, A., Kazak, A. E., & Pierce, J. (2021). Topical Review: Crowdsourcing as a Novel Approach to Qualitative Research. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 46(2), 189-196.
  • Thunberg, S., & Arnell, L. (2022). Pioneering the use of technologies in qualitative research – A research review of the use of digital interviews. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 25(6), 757-768.
  • Tran, B., Rafinejad-Farahani, B., Moodie, S., O’Hagan, R., & Glista, D. (2021). A Scoping Review of Virtual Focus Group Methods Used in Rehabilitation Sciences. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20.
  • West, C. H., Rieger, K. L., Kenny, A., Chooniedass, R., Mitchell, K. M., Winther, K. A., Amie-Rae, Z., Demczuk, L., & Scott, S. D. (2022). Digital Storytelling as a Method in Health Research: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.

Other articles

  • Alcaire, R., Flores, A. M. M., & Antunes, E. (2024). Beyond Words: Tapping the Potential of Digital Diaries While Exploring Young Adults’ Experiences on Apps. Societies, 14 (3), 40.

  • Anderson, E., Koss, M., Luque, A. L. C., Garcia, D., Lopez, E., & Ernst, K. (2021). WhatsApp-Based Focus Groups Among Mexican-Origin Women in Zika Risk Area: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Data Quality. Jmir Formative Research, 5(10).
  • Boamah, S.A., Marie-Lee, Y., Weldrick, R., Havaei, F., & Ganann, R. (2022). Using Photovoice as a Method for Capturing the Lived Experiences of Caregivers During COVID-19: A Methodological Insight. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.
  • Bouchard, K., & Tulloch, H. (2020). Strengthening behavioral clinical trials with online qualitative research methods. Journal of Health Psychology, 25(2), 256-265.
  • Braun, V., Clarke, V., Boulton, E., Davey, L., & McEvoy, C. (2021). The online survey as a qualitative research tool. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 24(6), 641-654.
  • Budworth, P. (2023). Care, comfort, and capacity: The importance of being flexible in research with Disabled and chronically ill people. SSM-Qualitative Research in Health, 4. 
  • Cardel, M. I., Manasse, S., Krukowski, R. A., Ross, K., Shakour, R., Miller, D. R., Lemas, D. J., & Hong, Y. R. (2020). COVID-19 Impacts Mental Health Outcomes and Ability/Desire to Participate in Research Among Current Research Participants. Obesity, 28(12), 2272-2281.
  • Carter, S. M., Shih, P., Williams, J., Degeling, C., & Mooney-Somers, J. (2021). Conducting Qualitative Research Online: Challenges and Solutions. Patient-Patient Centered Outcomes Research, 14(6), 711-718.
  • Creese, J., Byrne, J.-P., Olson, R., & Humphries, N. (2023). A catalyst for change: Developing a collaborative reflexive ethnographic approach to research with hospital doctors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodological Innovations, 16(1), 3-14.
  • Ddungu, C., Manirankunda, L., Meudec, M., Van Landeghem, E., Vanhamel, J., Katsuva, D., & Nostlinger, C. (2023). Sub-Saharan African communities' experiences and engagement with COVID-19 and the related control strategies in Antwerp, Belgium. International Journal for Equity in Health, 22(1).
  • Dodds, S., & Hess, A. C. (2021). Adapting research methodology during COVID-19: lessons for transformative service research. Journal of Service Management, 32(2), 203-217.
  • Dwyer, A. A., Uveges, M., Dockray, S., & Smith, N. (2022). Advancing qualitative rare disease research methodology: a comparison of virtual and in-person focus group formats. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 17(1).
  • Egid, B., Kim, O., Hegel, G., Zimmerman, E., López, Y., Roura, M., Sheikhattari, P., Jones, L., Dias, S., & Wallerstein, N. (2023). Can everyone hear me? Reflections on the use of global online workshops for promoting inclusive knowledge generation. Qualitative Research, 23(2), 195-216.
  • Enoch, J., Subramanian, A., & Willig, C. (2023). "If I don't like it, I'll just pop the phone down!": Reflecting on participant and researcher experiences of telephone interviews conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ssm-Qualitative Research in Health, 4, Article 100351.

  • Ferlatte, O., Karmann, J., Gariépy, G., Frohlich, K. L., Moullec, G., Lemieux, V., & Hébert, R. (2022). Virtual Photovoice With Older Adults: Methodological Reflections during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.

  • Fish, J., Syed, M., & Adler, J. et al. (2021). Digital storytelling methodologies: Recommendations for a participatory approach to engaging underrepresented communities in counseling psychology research. Special Issue: Qualitative Research: Method, Power, and Process, 68(3), 271-285.
  • Gebska-Kuczerowska, A., Lahiri, S., & Gajda, R. (2020). Bridging the Gap between Theory, Practice, and Policy: A Decision-Making Process Based on Public Health Evidence Feasible in Multi-Stage Research on Biological Risk Factors in Poland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(20).
  • Goodyear, V., & Bundon, A. (2021). Contemporary digital qualitative research in sport, exercise and health: introduction. Qualitative Research in Sport Exercise and Health, 13(1), 1-10.
  • Griffioen, N., van Rooij, M., Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A., Granic, I., & Ahn, D. et al. (2020). Toward improved methods in social media research. Technology, Mind, and Behavior, 1(1), No-Specified.
  • Hallam, K. F., & Abrams, K. et al (2022). Moving on from trials and errors: A discussion on the use of a forum as an online focus group in qualitative research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory & Practice, 25(4), 429-439.
  • Halliday, M., Mill, D., Johnson, J., Lee, K., Archibald, M. et al. (2021). Let's talk virtual! Online focus group facilitation for the modern researcher. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy, 17(12), 2145-2150.
  • Hennessey, A., Demkowicz, O., Pert, K., Mason, C., Bray, L., & Ashworth, E. (2022). Using Creative Approaches and Facilitating Remote Online Focus Groups With Children and Young People: Reflections, Recommendations and Practical Guidance. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.
  • Hernandez-Nino, J., Thomas, M., Alexander, A. B., Ott, M. A., & Kline, J. A. (2021). The use of qualitative methods in venous thromboembolism research. Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 5(6).
  • Heywood, E., Meuter, S., & Ivey, B. (2022). Reaching hard-to-reach communities: using WhatsApp to give conflict-affected audiences a voice. International Journal of Social Research Methodology.
  • Hinkes, C., & Braun, V. et al. (2021). Key aspects to consider when conducting synchronous text-based online focus groups-A research note. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory & Practice, 24(6), 753-759.
  • Hitzler, S., Bohringer, D., Amann, K. et al. (2021). "Conversation is simply something to begin with": Methodological challenges of video data in qualitative research-The case of conversation analysis. "Conversation is simply something to begin with": Methodologische Herausforderungen durch Videodaten in der qualitativen Sozialforschung am Beispiel der Konversationsanalyse., 50(2), 79-95.
  • Ismayilova, M., & Yaya, S. (2022). What can be done to improve polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) healthcare? Insights from semi-structured interviews with women in Canada. Bmc Womens Health, 22(1).
  • Jaramillo, J., Bradley, B. M., Jentes, E. S., Rahman, M., Sood, N. J., PhD, J. W., Marano, N., Ahmed, F. S., & Kumar, G. S. (2022). Lessons Learned From a Qualitative COVID-19 Investigation Among Essential Workers With Limited English Proficiency in Southwest Kansas. Health Education & Behavior, 49(2), 194-199.
  • Karadzhov, D. (2021). Expanding the methodological repertoire of participatory research into homelessness: The utility of the mobile phone diary. Qualitative social work, 20(3), 813-831.
  • Keemink, J. R., Sharp, R. J., Dargan, A. K., & Forder, J. E. (2022). Reflections on the Use of Synchronous Online Focus Groups in Social Care Research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.
  • Keen, S., Lomeli-Rodriguez, M., & Joffe, H. (2022). From Challenge to Opportunity: Virtual Qualitative Research During COVID-19 and Beyond. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.
  • Lane, J., & Lingel, J. (2022). Digital Ethnography for Sociology: Craft, Rigor, and Creativity. Qualitative Sociology, 45(3), 319-326.
  • Lang, M. H., Laing, C., Ewashen, C., & Moules, N. (2020). Digital Stories as Data: An Etymological and Philosophical Exploration of Cocreated Data in Philosophical Hermeneutic Health Research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 19.
  • Lawrence, L., Archibald, M. et al. (2022). Conducting cross-cultural qualitative interviews with mainland Chinese participants during COVID: Lessons from the field. Qualitative Research, 22(1), 154-165.
  • Lehoux, P., Miller, F. A., & Williams-Jones, B. (2020). Anticipatory governance and moral imagination: Methodological insights from a scenario-based public deliberation study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 151, 1.
  • Liamputtong, P., Rice, Z. S., Abma, T. et al. (2022). Qualitative inquiry and inclusive research. Handbook of social inclusion: Research and practices in health and social sciences., 329-347.
  • Lomax, H., Smith, K., McEvoy, J., Brickwood, E., Jensen, K., & Walsh, B. (2022). Creating online participatory research spaces: insights from creative, digitally mediated research with children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Families, Relationships and Societies, 11(1), 19-37.
  • Luqiu, L. R., Liao, S. X., Ahmed, S. et al. (2021). Rethinking 'the personal is political:' Enacting agency in the narrative of sexual harassment experiences in China. Discourse & Society, 32(6), 708-727.
  • Malka, M., & Malka M, M. et al. (2021). Photovoice as a creative coping tool with the COVID-19 crisis in practical training seminar for social work students. Qualitative Social Work: Research and Practice, 20(1-2), 544-552.
  • Melis, G., Sala, E., & Zaccaria, D. (2022). Remote recruiting and video-interviewing older people: a research note on a qualitative case study carried out in the first Covid-19 Red Zone in Europe. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 25(4), 477-482.
  • Mendoza, J., Seguin, M. L., Lasco, G., Palileo-Villanueva, L. M., Amit, A., Renedo, A., McKee, M., Palafox, B., & Balabanova, D. (2021). Strengths and Weaknesses of Digital Diaries as a Means to Study Patient Pathways: Experiences With a Study of Hypertension in the Philippines. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20.
  • Mikulak, M., Ryan, S., Russell, S., Caton, S., Keagan-Bull, R., Spalding, R., Ribenfors, F., & Hatton, C. (2023). ‘Internet is easy if you know how to use it’: Doing online research with people with learning disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 51(2), 269-278.
  • Neo Pearlyn, H. M., Lim, J. M., Tan Rayner, K. J., & Ong Suan, E. (2022). Using WhatsApp Focus Group Discussions for Qualitative Data Collection: Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of COVID-19 in Singapore. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.
  • Newman, P. A., Guta, A., & Black, T. (2021). Ethical Considerations for Qualitative Research Methods During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Other Emergency Situations: Navigating the Virtual Field. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20.
  • Nguyen, K., Stuart, J. J., Shah, A. H., Becene, I. A., West, M. G., Berrill, J., Gelaye, B., Borba, C. P. C., & Rich-Edwards, J. W. (2023). Novel Methods for Leveraging Large Cohort Studies for Qualitative and Mixed-Methods Research. American Journal of Epidemiology.
  • Ofe-Grant, B. (2022). Rethinking Oceanic-Pacific Methods of Data Collection During COVID-19: Insights From the Field. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.
  • Osman, I., & Singaram, V. (2022). Using PhotoVoice to understand mindfulness in health care practitioners. Health Sa Gesondheid, 27.
  • Padilla, M., Gutierrez, M., & Fagan, J. (2022). Using Semistructured Telephone Interviews to Collect Qualitative Data From People With HIV Who Are Not in Medical Care: Implementation Study. Jmir Research Protocols, 11(11).
  • Parameswaran, U. D., Ozawa-Kirk, J. L., Latendresse, G., Bailey, J. et al. (2020). To live (code) or to not: A new method for coding in qualitative research. Qualitative Social Work: Research and Practice, 19(4), 630-644.
  • Pearce, C., Tilley, S., & Thompson, C. W. (2023). 'Being there' is what matters: Methodological and ethical challenges when undertaking research on the outdoor environment with older people during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Ssm-Qualitative Research in Health, 4, Article 100348.

  • Pierorazio, N. A., Nester, S., Shandler, G., & Brand, B. L. (2023). "This 'prison' where I cannot heal:" Interactions of culture, dissociation, and treatment among individuals who dissociate. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7(2).
  • Pocock, T., Smith, M., & Wiles, J. (2021). Recommendations for Virtual Qualitative Health Research During a Pandemic. Qualitative Health Research, 31(13), 2403-2413.
  • Polidano, K., Parton, L., Agampodi, S. B., Agampodi, T. C., Haileselassie, B. H., Lalani, J. M. G., Mota, C., Price, H. P., Rodrigues, S., Tafere, G. R., Trad, L. A. B., Zerihun, Z., Dikomitis, L., & Eclipse, T. (2022). Community Engagement in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Research in Brazil, Ethiopia, and Sri Lanka: A Decolonial Approach for Global Health. Frontiers in Public Health, 10.
  • Riha, J., Abreu Lopes, C., Ibrahim Naima, A., & Srinivasan, S. (2021). Media and Digital Technologies for Mixed Methods Research in Public Health Emergencies Such as COVID-19: Lessons Learned From Using Interactive Radio–SMS for Social Research in Somalia. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 15(3), 304-326.
  • Rudrum, S., Casey, R., Frank, L., Brickner, R. K., MacKenzie, S., Carlson, J., & Rondinelli, E. (2022). Qualitative Research Studies Online: Using Prompted Weekly Journal Entries During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.
  • Sackett, B. (2024). Ghosted: Challenges to Conducting Qualitative Research in the Digital Era. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 0(0).
  • Samardzic, T., Wildman, C., Barata, P. C., Morton, M., & Abrams, K. et al. (2023). Considerations for conducting online focus groups on sensitive topics. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory & Practice,
  • Sansfaçon, A. P., Gravel, E., & Gelly, M. A. (2024). Dealing With Scam in Online Qualitative Research: Strategies and Ethical Considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 23, Article 16094069231224610. 
  • Santhosh, L., Rojas, J. C., & Lyons, P. G. (2021). Zooming into Focus Groups: Strategies for Qualitative Research in the Era of Social Distancing. Ats Scholar, 2(2), 176-184.
  • Schweinhart, A., Atwood, K., Aramburu, C., Bauer, R., Luseno, W., & Simons-Rudolph, A. (2023). Prioritizing Participant Safety During Online Focus Groups With Women Experiencing Violence. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 22.
  • Seide, K., Casanova, F. O., Ramirez, E., McKenna, M., Cepeda, A., & Nowotny, K. M. (2023). Piloting a Flexible Solicited Diary Study With Marginalized Latina Women During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 22.
  • Serekoane, M., Marais, L., Pienaar, M., Sharp, C., Cloete, J., & Blomerus, L. (2021). Fieldworker reflections on using telephone voice calls to conduct fieldwork amidst the Covid-19 pandemic. Anthropology Southern Africa, 44(4), 161-174.
  • Shamsuddin, A., Sheikh, A., & Keers, R. N. (2021). Conducting Research Using Online Workshops During COVID-19: Lessons for and Beyond the Pandemic. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20.
  • Shaw, E. K., & American Sociological Association, et al. (2020). The use of online discussion forums and communities for health research. Family Practice, 37(4), 574-577.
  • Spyreli, E., Vaughan, E., McKinley, M. C., Woodside, J. V., Hennessy, M., & Kelly, C. (2023). Using Online Photovoice to Explore Food Decisions of Families on Low Income: Lessons Learnt During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Qualitative Health Research. 
  • Strickland, J. C., & Victor, G. A. (2020). Leveraging crowdsourcing methods to collect qualitative data in addiction science: Narratives of non-medical prescription opioid, heroin, and fentanyl use. International Journal of Drug Policy, 75.
  • Suslow, A., Giehl, C., Hergesell, J., Vollmar, H. C., & Otte, I. C. (2023). Conducting Qualitative Research under Pandemic Restrictions - Considerations, Challenges, and Benefits: A Methodological Field Report. Gesundheitswesen, 85, S189-S196.
  • Varma, D. S., Young, M. E., Kreider, C. M., Williams, K., Vaddiparti, K., Parisi, C., & Semeah, L. M. (2021). Practical Considerations in Qualitative Health Research During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20.
  • Vine Foggo, R. S., Webster, A. A., Dixon, R., Apa, A. et al. (2020). Utilisation of an online forum to engage adolescents with autism in direct participation in qualitative research. British Journal of Special Education, 47(2), 208-229.
  • Waling, A., Lyons, A., Alba, B., Minichiello, V., Barrett, C., Hughes, M., & Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. (2022). Recruiting stigmatised populations and managing negative commentary via social media: a case study of recruiting older LGBTI research participants in Australia. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 25(2), 157-170.
  • Welford, J., Sandhu, J., Collinson, B., & Blatchford, S. (2022). Collecting qualitative data using a smartphone app: Learning from research involving people with experience of multiple disadvantage. Methodological Innovations, 15(3), 193-206.
  • West, C. H., Rieger, K. L., Kenny, A., Chooniedass, R., Mitchell, K. M., Winther, K. A., Amie-Rae, Z., Demczuk, L., & Scott, S. D. (2022). Digital Storytelling as a Method in Health Research: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.
  • Woodgate, R. L., Gonzalez, M., Barrion, J. C., Hussain, T., Shamraiz, I., Singcay, N., Smith, S., Thielmann, N., & Yazon, E. (2023). Co-designing Guidelines for Using Arts-based methods when Conducting Youth Mental Health Research in Online Environments. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 22. 
  • Zhang, Y., Cao, B. L., Wang, Y. F., Peng, T. Q., & Wang, X. H. (2020). When Public Health Research Meets Social Media: Knowledge Mapping From 2000 to 2018. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(8).


  • Aidley, D. & Fearon, K. (2021) Doing Accessible Social Research: A Practical Guide. Policy Press. Chapter 7.
  • Braun, V., Clarke, V., & Gray, D. (2017). Collecting qualitative data: a practical guide to textual, media and virtual techniques. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kara, H., & Khoo, S.-m. (2021). Qualitative and digital research in times of crisis: methods, reflexivity, and ethics. Policy Press.
  • Powell, J., & van Velthoven, M. H. (2020). Digital Data and Online Qualitative Research. In C. Pope & N. Mays (Eds.), Qualitative research in healthcare. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Salmons, J. E. (2021). Doing qualitative research online (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications Ltd.

Reports and Guidelines

Web Resources