PhD and MSc Opportunities
There are a limited number of PhD places available, most of which are linked to current research projects and start in October of a given year. Application procedures and further details can be found on the departmental postgraduate pages. Suitably qualified students with independent sources of funding can apply at any time and we will discuss possible research projects leading to either a PhD or a one year MSc.
Typical postgraduate student project will involve training in a wide variety of techniques from design and epitaxial growth of semiconductor layer structures, through assessment of physical and electrical characteristics, to final device measurements. At each stage there will be opportunities to undertake simulation and modelling of the results and to predict expected performance. By the end of their project students should expect to be experts in several or more experimental techniques, such as epitaxial growth, devices fabrication, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrical measurements over a wide temperature range down to the milikelvin regime, in magnetic fields and from d.c. to high frequencies, etc and acquire strong knowledge in epitaxy, materials science, physics of semiconductor materials and devices, applied physics, nanotechnology and quantum physics. As such, past graduates from the Group have been highly employable and gone on to work in academia, industry (some extremely well paid!) and commerce.
Details of current opportunities in the group can be found below.
If you are interested in any of these projects or the group's research areas then please contact Dr Maksym Myronov.
PhD projects to start in October 2022.
The students will be enrolled on the Materials Physics Doctorate scheme (go.warwick.ac.uk/MPDOC). This gives access to a tailored research degree to exploit Warwick’s outstanding materials growth, fabrication, characterisation and computational capabilities, and those at central facilities. A broad education in Materials Physics is provided through dedicated modules under the Midlands Physics Alliance Graduate School, and external courses.
Selective epitaxial growth of Silicon Carbide thin film materials
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide band gap compound semiconductor material attractive for future applications in high power and high frequency electronic devices, UV photonic devices and sensors including those for bio-medical, industrial, IoT and automotive sectors. Epitaxial growth of a semiconductor material thin film with thickness starting from sub-nanometre is an essential front end technology from which fabrication of any modern and advanced semiconductor device begins. In particular, selective epitaxial growth is the most advanced epitaxy technology enabled appearance of high end electronic and photonic devices widely used in everyday life. Selective epitaxy permits growth of a monocrystalline semiconductor material on a surface of another monocrystalline semiconductor surrounded by a non-crystalline material preventing epitaxy on its surface. Thus, the technology allows integration of different materials on the same substrate, and potentially could be a solution for very challenging heteroepitaxy of highly mismatched materials. Nowadays, selective epitaxy of silicon and silicon germanium materials is widely used to in production, development and research of modern and future devices. Such modern devices are inside of computers, smartphones and a large variety of electronic gadgets, and life without most of them is unimaginable. However, essential selective epitaxy of SiC has not been demonstrated yet. The reason for it is extremely high growth temperatures of SiC at which any mask material melts. Recently, a new low-temperature SiC epitaxy technology has been invented at Warwick University, which opens up the opportunity for selective epitaxy of SiC.
This PhD project is an exciting opportunity to be involved in an innovative and pioneering research on selective epitaxial growth of SiC semiconductor material. Selective epitaxy physics of SiC is expected to be researched and understood. The project is based on recent ground breaking work demonstrating SiC epitaxy at low-temperature which has led to high impact research and the formation of a spin-out company. The experimental information will add greatly to the knowledge of materials science and condensed matter physics; and enable a wide range of electronic, photonic and sensor device architectures. Epitaxial growth for this research will be carried out at Warwick University, using unique to UK academia industrial type Reduced Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition (RP-CVD) equipment upgraded beyond state of the art. Patterned substrates for the selective epitaxy will be fabricated in house and supplied by industrial and academic collaborators. Characterisation of grown materials will be carried out in-house using a range of state of the art equipment and techniques including XTEM, SEM, AFM, HR-XRD, XRR, Raman spectroscopy, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, FTIR, Hall effect and resistivity, etc. The successful PhD candidate will work at the cutting edge of semiconductor research and collaborate closely with experts across academia and industry. The skills and experience learned throughout the PhD will make the candidate an expert in epitaxial growth, metrology and device fabrication, skills which can be transferred across the semiconductor and broader condensed matter fields. The project will involve collaboration with scientists from national and international universities as well as with research groups from leading semiconductor companies. Successful outcome from the project would lead to high impact publications in international scientific journals, creation of IP with enormous impact potential and application of developed selective epitaxy of SiC in a variety of power and RF electronic devices and sensors using capabilities of academic and industrial collaborators.
Epitaxy of Gallium Oxide quantum well semiconductor heterostructures on Sapphire
The radio–frequency (RF) power electronics applications including electronic and photonic sensors based on silicon technology have already reached their potential limits. The emergence of wide bandgap (WBG) materials such as silicon-carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) brought new opportunities enabling compact and more efficient electronic devices. However, the push toward even higher frequency operation and increased power densities is driving the urgent need for new class of materials. Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) has been marked as ultra-wide bandgap (UWBG) material, next to the wide bandgap SiC and GaN materials to be extensively utilized for the sensors and RF power conversion applications in future electric vehicles and energy harvesting systems. Although the mobility of the bulk Ga2O3 reported in the literature is lower than those of well researched compound semiconductors, the cubic dependence of DC conduction loss on electric field breakdown allows superior switching performance and outstanding figure of merit. In the last five years, Ga2O3 has attracted great interest due to a combination of its unique material properties and native substrate availability. However, enhancement of electron mobility utilising quantum effects has not been researched in this material, yet.
This PhD project is an exciting opportunity to be involved in an innovative and pioneering research on epitaxy of Ga2O3 quantum well (QW) heterostructures and basic research of their properties. The overall aim is to demonstrate the world’s 1st strained Ga2O3 QW heterostructure, on cost-effective c-plane sapphire substrate, with coexistence of modulation doping and strain induced layer to enhance electron mobility and understand its scattering mechanisms. The experimental results will add greatly to the knowledge of materials science, condensed matter physics and physics of UWBG semiconductors; and enable a wide range of electronic, photonic and sensor device architectures based on new class of emerging UWBG semiconductor materials. Epitaxial growth for this research will be carried out at Warwick University, using unique to the UK academia, Molecular Beam Epitaxy of gallium oxide. Characterisation of grown materials will be carried out in-house using a range of state of the art equipment and techniques including XTEM, SEM, AFM, HR-XRD, XRR, Raman spectroscopy, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, FTIR, Hall effect and resistivity, etc. Electronic devices for measurements of pioneering transport properties of 2D electron gas (2DEG), including mobility, will be done in-house as well, using recently commissioned agile microfabrication facilities. The successful PhD candidate will work at the cutting edge of semiconductor research and collaborate closely with experts across academia and industry. The skills and experience learned throughout the PhD will make the candidate an expert in epitaxial growth, metrology and device fabrication, skills which can be transferred across the semiconductor and broader condensed matter fields. The project will involve collaboration with scientists from national and international. Successful outcome from the project would lead to high impact publications in international scientific journals, creation of IP with enormous impact potential and application of novel materials in a variety of power and RF electronic devices and sensors using capabilities of academic and industrial collaborators.
Advanced low dimensional strained Germanium material system as a playground for spin and hybrid quantum technology
Strained Germanium (Ge) has the highest 2D hole mobility among semiconductors and is integrated with Silicon (Si) on the same Si substrate. These properties make high-speed Ge transistors appealing for extending chip performance in classical computers beyond the limits imposed by miniaturization. Ge is also emerging as a promising material for quantum technology as it contains crucial parameters for semiconducting, superconducting, and topological quantum electronic devices. The high mobility of holes and their low effective mass promotes the confinement of spins in low-disorder Ge quantum dots by uniform potential landscapes. Holes in Ge have large and tunable g-factors, with inherent strong spin-orbit interaction. These properties facilitate fast all-electrical qubit control, qubit coupling at a distance via superconductors, and are key ingredients for the emergence of Majorana zero modes for topological quantum computing.
This PhD project is an exciting opportunity to be involved in innovative and pioneering research on quantum physics of holes in strained Ge semiconductor nanostructures leading to creation of Ge qubit. Quantum physics of holes in 0D and 1D low dimensional strained Ge semiconductor systems is expected to be researched and understood. The project is based on present ground breaking work showing the existence of fractional quantisation in the quasi 1D holes in strained epitaxial Ge low dimensional system. This is a completely new material to be used in quantum physics experiments and the effects, which have recently been observed are new. The experimental information will add greatly to knowledge of condensed matter physics and quantum physics. The state of the art materials for this research will be created at Warwick via epitaxial growth of biaxial strained Ge quantum well (QW) heterostructures on standard Si substrates followed by fabrication of nanoscale 1D quantum wires and 0D dots. Characterisation of grown materials and fabricated devices will be carried out in-house using a range of state of the art equipment and techniques including XTEM, SEM, AFM, HR-XRD, XRR, Raman spectroscopy, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, FTIR, Hall effect and resistivity, etc. Nano-Silicon group’s unique strained Ge QWs are used to create 2D holes with unprecedented high mobility and unique spin and quantum properties. The mean free path of this 2D holes at low-temperatures exceeds over 10 µm, which creates excellent foundation to research ballistic transport in reduced dimensional system. Quantum physics of materials and devices will be researched with the help of variety of in-house cutting edge experimental characterization techniques at low temperatures (<10K) and in collaboration with UK and European academic and industrial partners. The skills and experience learned throughout the PhD will make the candidate an expert in epitaxial growth, nanoscale devices fabrication and metrology skills, which can be transferred across the semiconductor and broader condensed matter fields. The project will involve collaboration with scientists from national and international universities as well as with research groups from leading semiconductor companies. Successful outcome from the project would lead to high impact publications in international scientific journals, creation of IP with high impact potential and application of developed materials, devices and quantum physics in a variety of quantum technologies using capabilities of academic and industrial collaborators.
Heteroepitaxy of silicon carbide on silicon
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap semiconductor material attractive for high power and high frequency electronic devices, due to its excellent properties (high thermal conductivity, breakdown field and saturation velocity). SiC has numerous polytypes with different crystal structures, among which 4H- and 6H-SiC are routinely used to fabricate electronic devices. 4H and 6H-SiC films of good crystal quality can be obtained by homoepitaxy on SiC substrates, which are expensive. This project will establish and unlock the potential of a recently invented technology at Warwick that uses an alternative polytype, 3C-SiC, which can be grown heteroepitaxially on a silicon substrate. High quality 3C-SiC on Si(111) provides an ideal strain tuning platform for the subsequent growth of GaN heterostructures, and the long-awaited realization of low-cost mass produced LEDs, HEMTs and a variety of high power electronic devices. Further, 3C-SiC can act as a substrate for the epitaxial growth of novel heterostructures of 2D materials, including graphene.
The project is an exciting opportunity to be involved in research and development of new concepts in 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial growth. Structural and electronic material and devices properties will be researched by a variety of in-house cutting edge experimental techniques including: Hall effect and resistivity, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), PL, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.
A complete characterization of these new epitaxial materials will provide an in-depth analysis and understanding of 3C-SiC heteroepitaxy, materials and devices made from this material. The project will involve collaboration with world’s leading semiconductor companies involved in production and development of GaN epitaxial materials and devices, as well as with scientists from national and international universities, and a spin-out company from the University of Warwick. The project will lead to high impact publications in international scientific journals, and to the application of developed materials in a variety of electronic and photonic devices using the capabilities of our industrial collaborators.
2D electrons in epitaxial strained Germanium quantum wells
Carrier mobility determines how fast a carrier, i.e. electron or hole, can move in a solid material under applied electric field. It is one of the most important material’s parameter, determining its suitability for an application in electronic devices. High mobility and the existence of a reasonably large energy band gap makes any semiconductor material attractive and suitable for applications in large variety of electronic devices including Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). This is a core device present in modern Silicon (Si) based Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology used in the fabrication of Central Processor Units (CPUs), memory and many other devices incorporated in computers and portable electronic devices. Si is one of the most important materials in modern semiconductor technology. However, in order to maintain existing industrial trend in improving performance of continuously scaling down to sub 10 nm FET devices, new materials or device architectures have to be introduced. Germanium (Ge) is a semiconductor material which has high intrinsic 3D hole and electron mobilities among other known semiconductor materials. In particular, its hole mobility is the highest among existing semiconductors. Biaxial compressive strain further enhances the hole mobility in Ge. In practice, this is obtained by epitaxial growth of a compressively strained Ge epilayer, a few nanometers thick, on an underlying standard Si substrate via an intermediate strain-relaxed SiGe buffer. The strain narrows the band gap of Ge and causes the appearance of a QW in the valence band. Holes confined in the strained Ge QW form a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) and have an increased mobility due both to their lower effective mass and reduced scattering factors in this material system. These hole mobilities are the highest not only among the group-IV Si and Ge based semiconductors, but also among p-type III-V and II-VI materials. However, existence of 2D Electron Gas in strained Ge QWs has not been demonstrated so far.
This is a unique opportunity to undertake a project at the cutting edge of applied physics and materials science. You will be involved in realization of the 2DEG in strained Ge QWs and research of their basic transport properties (mobility, effective mass, etc). The novel structures will be created by epitaxial growth by an industrial type Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) of Ge QW heterostructures on underlying Si substrates. A number of characterization techniques and experimental setups will be used to research electrical, magnetotransport, structural and optical properties of novel materials. The future success of the strained Ge QW heterostructures depends on our ability to understand their transport phenomena and other material properties. Successful outcome from the project would lead to high impact publications in international scientific journals and application of developed materials in a variety of electronic and spintronic devices using capabilities of our academic and industrial collaborators.
Germanium-Tin-Silicon heterostructures for mid-infrared solid state laser
Epitaxially grown Germanium-Tin-Silicon (GeSnSi) heterostructures are excellent new group-IV semiconductor materials for future realization of monolithic integration of active and passive waveguide components on silicon or silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates. In particular, the Germanium-Tin (GeSn) alloys attract considerable attention because of tuneable band gaps in the mid-infrared and a band gap transition from indirect to direct has been predicted for certain composition ranges. In recent years, the possibility of adjusting lattice parameters and band gaps over a wide range stimulated the research dedicated to Silicon compatible device concepts based on strain engineering and even the combination of Si with III-V based technologies. Within the group-IV photonics, the Si based electrically injected laser diode is a key component that is still missing. GeSn is probably the best-known Sn-containing alloy and for this material the infrared region is most natural for radiative band-to-band emission because the direct band gap of this crystalline alloy is narrower than that of elemental Ge, the semiconductor in which optically pumped Ge-on-Si lasing at 1.6 µm has already been observed.
The project will focus on development of silicon-based group-IV semiconductor injection laser diode in which the GeSn active region has a direct band gap wavelength in the 1.8 to 5.0 µm mid-infrared wavelength range. Epitaxial growth of the structures will be developed in house using an industrial class Reduced Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition equipment. Materials properties will be researched by variety of in house cutting edge experimental techniques including conductivity, Hall effect, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, Transmission Elecron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Devices will be fabricatied and characterized in house and/or in collaboration with national and international research partners using state of the art technologies and techniques. Successful outcome from the project will lead to invention of novel types of photonic devices.
On-axis 4H-SiC homoepitaxial growth by Chemical Vapour Deposition
Silicon carbide (SiC) is an attractive material for developing high-power, high-temperature, and high frequency devices, owing to its superior properties. Recently there has been significant progress in producing such type of SiC devices. The low total power loss and the high switching speed are the driving forces for its introduction to the market. Today yield and performance of the devices, with respect to usable active device area, are mainly dependent on the quality of wafers and epitaxial layers. Although Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) has the advantages of the precise control and uniformity of epilayer’s thickness and impurity doping, the quality of the epilayers can be affected by polytype mixing. SiC has numerous polytypes, among which 4H- and 6H-SiC are used to fabricate electronic devices. 4H and 6H-SiC films of reasonable crystal quality can be obtained by homoepitaxy at a growth temperature over 1600°C. The unique SiC properties, superior in comparison to standard semiconductors, can be utilized only when the material is of high quality. Therefore, today most SiC electronic devices are not fabricated directly on wafers prepared from sublimation grown crystals, but on epitaxial layers. To realize high-performance SiC devices, the reduction of crystal defects such as stacking faults, dislocations, and point defects is necessary.
The project will focus on development of on-axis 4H-SiC homoepitaxial growth for high quality SiC epilayers on 4H-SiC substrates. It is one of the most challengining research area and very demanding by manufacturers of SiC wafers and power electronic devices. Epitaxial growth of the structures will be developed in-house, using the first among the UK universities, commercial CVD equipment. Materials properties will be researched by variety of in-house cutting edge experimental techniques including Hall effect and resistivity measurements, defects revealing, Transmission Elecron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Photoluminescence and Raman Spectroscopy. Complex characterization of new epitaxial materials will provide an in-depth analysis and understanding of SiC homoepitaxy. Successful outcome from the project would lead to application of developed materials in a variety of power electronic devices.
Low-dimensional strained Silicon Germanium heterostructures for applications in high efficiency thermoelectric devices
Thermoelectric materials generate electricity from thermal energy using the Seebeck effect to generate a voltage and an electronic current from a temperature difference across the semiconductor. High thermoelectric efficiency ZT requires a semiconductor with high electronic conductivity and low thermal conductivity. At present, however, most thermoelectric devices are based on bulk material properties, limiting the ZT, in part due to the Wiedemann-Franz Law, which linearly relates the electrical and thermal conductivities for heavily doped, metallic semiconductors. Significantly higher ZTs, however, can be obtained for low-dimensional structures using quantum wells, wires or dots. In order to produce practical devices, however, it is necessary for a large number of these quantum well layers to be considered. Ge has a 4.18% larger lattice constant than Si, and therefore, thermoelectric designs using SiGe heterostructures are limited by the critical thicknesses for each heterolayer as well as the complete stack of strained layers. Thus, strained balanced quantum well structures must be utilised, as all practical layer thicknesses for a complete thermoelectric generator are significantly greater than the critical thickness of the heterolayers.
The project will explore novel designs of high Ge content strain balanced SiGe multilayerd heterostructures with very large number of periods above 1000. Thickness of individual SiGe epilayers will be varied from few monolayers up to several nanometers. Thus precise control of the epilayers thicknesses, Ge and dopants contents therein and their reproducibility along growth direction of 1000’s perioads will be essential. Epitaxial growth of the structures will be developed in-house using an industrial class Reduced Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition equipment. Materials properties will be researched by variety of in-house cutting edge experimental techniques including conductivity, Hall effect, magnetotransport and thermoelectric measurements, Transmission Elecron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermoelectric devices will be fabricatied and characterized in house and/or in collaboration with national and international research partners using state of the art technologies and techniques. Successful outcome from the project would lead to application of developed materials in practicale power generators.
Germanium based superconducting tunnel junction solid state devices for low-temperature cooling applications
Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) have been demonstrated in the past to cool platforms which are intended for applications such as quantum computers, sub-Kelvin detectors and STJ detectors. These STJs take advantage of the weak electron-phonon coupling in normal metals and degenerate semiconductors at very low temperatures so that they can filter out the most energetic electrons into a superconductor. The removal of these “hot electrons” will lower the overall temperature of the electrons in the normal metals or degenerate semiconductors which can then be used to cool its phonons, all at the flick of a switch. Most STJs which have been used for this application have been in the form of a Normal metal/Insulator/Superconductor (NIS) junction on an insulating membrane. However, these junctions have a counterpart in the Semiconductor – Superconductor (SmS) Schottky junctions, which allow commercial Silicon and Germanium integrated circuitry (IC) to be integrated into these cooling platforms. We have recently reported on the effectiveness of these cooling platforms using epitaxially grown bulk Silicon and strained Silicon. In contrast to Silicon the Germanium shows a potential to outperform its predecessor.
The aim of this project would be to develop and research Germanium based STJs for cooling applications, with the possibility of placing STJ devices on mirco-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) structures. It will involve materials structural characterization by variety of in-house cutting edge experimental techniques including Transmission Elecron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction; fabrication of micro- and nano-scale devices using in-hose optical and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography, deposition and etching techniques; and low-temperature electrical, Hall effect and thermoelectric measurements of the devices.
Strained Ge quantum well spintronic devices
Spintronics is an emerging technology exploiting both the intrinsic spin of the electron (or hole) and its associated magnetic momentum, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge. Since the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) by Fert and Grünberg in 1988, for which they were recently awarded the Nobel Prize, research into spintronics has progressed rapidly. Early applications included read heads in magnetic hard disk drives, and more recently magnetic random access memory (MRAM). Progress in applications has always moved hand-in-hand with basic research, and there is still much understanding to be gained of spin interactions in materials. Recently, attention has turned to exploring spin physics in semiconductors and in particular in germanium (Ge). Early results demonstrated spin transport, injection and accumulation at both low and room temperatures. The Nano-Silicon Research group has developed epitaxial growth technology for extremely high 2D hole gas mobility Ge quantum well (QW) heterostructures using both Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) techniques. These are essential materials for research into spin transport in Ge.
The project will offer an opportunity to undertake a cutting edge research in both spintronics and semiconductor physics. Fabrication of a spin-FET and other spintronic devices using optical and e-beam lithography and thin film deposition techniques will be done in house and in collaboration with academic and industrial partners. Changing the magnetic contact material used will alter the degree of spin polarisation. Variation of the injection tunnel barrier material, for example GeO2, Al2O3, MgO or others, will allow the spin transparency of the interface to be tuned and researched. Spin transport measurements as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature using a low temperature probe station (300 – 4K), closed cycle 4He cryostat (300 – 10 K) or closed cycle 3He cryostat (300 – 0.3 K) will be utilized to determine critical spintronic device parameters such as spin diffusion length, spin relaxation time and spin polarisation through analysis and modelling of the data obtained. The future success of spintronics ultimately depends on our ability to precisely control the polarisation of electrons or holes transported within the device structure.