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Babies born just two or three weeks early at higher risk of poor health

A researcher at the University of Warwick has found that babies born just a few weeks early have worse health outcomes compared to full-term babies.

Professor Dieter Wolke and a team of other medical researchers from the Universities of Leicester, Liverpool and Oxford and the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit studied more than 18,000 British babies born between September 2000 and August 2001. Health outcomes were studies when the infants reached nine months, three years and five years.

Health outcomes assessed included height, weight and BMI, whilst parents also reported on number of hospital visits, long-standing illness, disability or infirmity, wheezing, use of prescribed medication and overall rating of child’s health.

The authors report that both moderate / late preterm (32-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) babies required re-admission to hospital in the first few months more often than full term babies (39-41 weeks). Those born between 33 and 36 weeks had an increased risk of asthma and wheezing compared to full term babies.

A strong correlation was found between decreasing gestation and increasing risk of poor health outcomes. The greatest contribution to disease at the age of both three and five was being born moderate / late preterm or early term.

Interestingly, the study discovered that mothers of children born at less than 37 weeks were more likely to be single, less likely to have educational qualifications or work in managerial positions. Mothers of very preterm babies were more likely to smoke and less likely to breast feed for four or more months than those delivered at or beyond 37 weeks.

Professor Wolke said: “Most interest in recent years has focussed on very preterm children. However, many more children are born moderate or late preterm. Although the problems are smaller, many more of these children are affected by health problems and may need careful monitoring. The findings have important implications for obstetrics and after care of these children”

The authors conclude that it is inappropriate simply to group babies as preterm or term as the study demonstrates a “continuum of increasing risk of adverse outcome with increasing prematurity, even approaching full term gestation”. They argue that further explanation of factors that influence health outcomes for babies born during this gestation period (32-38 weeks) is needed to confirm their findings and subsequently improve the provision of obstetric services and planning and delivery of healthcare services for children in early life.

Notes to Editors

For more information or interview opportunities with Professor Wolke contact Luke Hamer, Assistant Press Officer, University of Warwick, on 02476 575601, or on 07824 541142. Alternatively email l.hamer@warwick.ac.uk


URL for full report:
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/bmj.e896