Skip to main content Skip to navigation

WRAP - latest items

WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

The rise in melanoma skin cancer rates from the 1950s in mostly fair-skinned populations, such as Britain, triggered a global panic on skin cancer in the 1990s. Some countries tightened restrictions on sunbeds to lower these rates, eventually leading to outright bans. However, the British government, medical experts and the media could not deter sunbed operators and instead focused on discouraging sunbed users. Soon, the media, endorsed by psychologists, confirmed a widespread 'condition' across Britain, termed as either 'sunbed addiction' or 'tanorexia'. This 'disorder' became a hot topic on new women-centred talk shows in mid-1990s Britain. As this talk show genre originated in America, it encouraged an 'American style' of public confession culture. Although 'American' openness did not resonate with the expectation of the British 'stiff upper lip', audience members aggressively contributed when topics touched on motherhood. This reflected the unanimous consensus that mothers should be 'selfless' and act in the best interest of their children. As such, topics on motherhood became a double-edged sword; the mothers, as talk show guests, received intense public support and scrutiny. By focusing on 'tanorexia', this chapter, therefore, demonstrates how new television genres linked to third-wave feminism continued a long-standing tradition of pathologising women's pleasure – especially if it deterred from maternal responsibilities. By historicising and contextualising talk shows, this chapter also offers novel approaches for health historians to build on, including how to evaluate the rhetorical and emotional reactions of its subjects and audience members.

By the early 1990s, a drastic increase in malignant melanoma rates—mainly in the UK, Europe, America, and Australia—sparked significant concern about skin cancer. Medical experts and the media attempted to curtail overall sunbed use in Britain but failed. Skincare providers and research institutions, on the other hand, realized that they could capitalise on people's concerns by providing the most advanced "UV-free" tanning technologies. This chapter focuses on two of these technologies: dihydroxyacetone (DHA) fake tanning serums and the entirely novel invention of MelanoTan injections. An evaluation of media coverage and publications in medical journals demonstrates how such "UV-free" technologies were introduced as entirely "safe" alternatives to sunbeds and sunbathing. As Creed argues, both products counterintuitively promoted former risk-laden practices and reinvigorated tanning culture overall. Tanning injections, moreover, introduced a new host of health risks for twenty-first-century consumers. Such technologies, therefore, provide insight into the history of controversial health, beauty, and risk reduction technologies. They also demonstrate the extent to which commercial industries have simultaneously taken the lead in resolving and profiting from public health concerns since the second half of the twentieth century.

Keywords: ultraviolet, tanning, cancer, sunbeds, health and beauty.

Objectives: Given the uncertainty regarding the optimal approach for airway management for adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the use of supraglottic airways (SGAs) with tracheal intubation for initial airway management in OHCA. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, as well as unpublished sources, from inception to February 7, 2023. Study Selection: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adult OHCA patients randomized to SGA compared with tracheal intubation for initial prehospital airway management. Data Extraction: Reviewers screened abstracts, full texts, and extracted data independently and in duplicate. We pooled data using a random-effects model. We used the modified Cochrane risk of bias 2 tool and assessed certainty of evidence using the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. We preregistered the protocol on PROSPERO (CRD42022342935). Data Synthesis: We included four RCTs (n = 13,412 patients). Compared with tracheal intubation , SGA use probably increases return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) (relative risk [RR] 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02–1.15; moderate certainty) and leads to a faster time to airway placement (mean difference 2.5 min less; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4 min less; high certainty). SGA use may have no effect on survival at longest follow-up (RR 1.06; 95% CI, 0.84–1.34; low certainty), has an uncertain effect on survival with good functional outcome (RR 1.11; 95% CI, 0.82–1.50; very low certainty), and may have no effect on risk of aspiration (RR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.16; low certainty). Conclusions: In adult patients with OHCA, compared with tracheal intubation, the use of SGA for initial airway management probably leads to more ROSC, and faster time to airway placement, but may have no effect on longer-term survival outcomes or aspiration events.

Hyperlink 
Hyperlink 

Contact

Envelope  publications at warwick dot ac dot uk


Quick links