This chapter demonstrates that identity-related connections that consumers form with possessions profoundly affect judgment and behavior. The authors first outline the implications of ownership for product-relevant domains from the lens of egocentric categorization theory (ECT). ECT explains when and how: (1) the material environment affects consumer judgments and decisions about the self; and (2) the self affects judgments and decisions about material objects. According to ECT, consumers categorize products relative to the self, based on ownership. Consumers then judge the self in assimilation or contrast to material objects, as well as judge material objects in assimilation or contrast to the self. The authors then describe the "see-saw self" model that highlights the implications of ownership for product-irrelevant domains: Product ownership not only affects identity behavior in product-relevant domains, but also deactivates identities in product-irrelevant domains. This identity-deactivation results in impaired performance on tasks in product-irrelevant domains. The authors propose avenues for future identity research
The effect of CVI-induced porosity on mechanical behaviour of Cf/SiC composites possessing 2.5D (woven) and 3D (NOOBed) architectures with multilayered (PyC/SiC)n=4 interphase has been investigated. X-ray computed micro-tomography has shown that inter-bundle and inter-fibre pore distribution is influenced by fibre architecture. Elastic constants measured by ultrasound phase spectroscopy have revealed greater anisotropy in 2.5D Cf/SiC composite than 3D Cf/SiC composite. Owing to negligible Cf fraction and flattened inter-bundle pores distributed in thickness direction of 2.5D Cf/SiC composite, the elastic constant, C11 (15±0.03 GPa) is <1/6th of C22 and C33 obtained along fibre directions. Despite the flexural strength of 2.5D Cf/SiC composite (335±8 MPa) being 24% higher than 3D Cf/SiC composite, a more equitable distribution of Cf along three mutually orthogonal directions leads to higher fracture toughness of 3D Cf/SiC composites (~19±1 MPa-m1/2) and greater damage tolerance. Porosity distributions having influence on crack paths, also affect both strength and fracture behaviour.
This article explores the possibility that product features may resonate differently with different consumers based on how consumers classify the product in relation to their selves. Prior research has shown that relating products to a consumer's self affects product memory, judgment, and choice. Here we identify a novel way in which the self contextualizes consumers' product decisions: egocentric processing. We introduce a theoretical distinction between two types of product features based on relative applicability to people versus products: person-related (e.g., toughness) and product-related (e.g., durability). Seven experiments demonstrated that consumers use self-categorization cues, such as ownership or brand, to classify products in relation to the category of self. Consumers then use the category of self, to which person-related features neatly apply, to process information about in-self products. Person-related features thus gain three advantages in consumer decisions about in-self (vs. out-self) products: greater consideration, faster processing, and higher importance. We see these advantages especially when (1) similar advantages are present in self-judgment, (2) consumers are self-focused, and (3) the self-categorization cue is self-defining. Our findings both open up new ways for marketers to increase the appeal of products for specific consumer segments and demonstrate ways to identify and target these segments.
Psychological ownership may be judged differently or similarly for self and others. Potential differences in how ownership is evaluated by actors and observers raise important questions about the concept of ownership (what is Mine, Ours, and Theirs) and how to resolve conflicting perceptions.