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Germany between Dictatorship and Democracy: Theorising Power from Above and Below

Charismatic power

Kershaw, Ian, Hitler (Harlow, 1991) - Profiles in Power series, not the huge biography

Neumann, Franz, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, 1933-1944 (OUP, 1944).

Weber, Max, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology (New York: Bedminster, 1968), i: 212-301 and iii: 941-55.

Totalitarianism theory

Arendt, Hanna, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York, 1951), pt. III.

Bracher, Karl Dietrich, The German Dictatorship: The Origins, Structure and Consequences of National Socialism (1969; New York, 1970).

Buchheim, Hans, Totalitarian Rule, its Nature and Characteristics (Middletown, 1968).

*Griffin, Roger, The Nature of Fascism (London, 1993).

*Kershaw, Ian, The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation (London, 1985 ff.), esp. chs. 1-2 & 7-8.


Reich, Wilhelm, The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1946; Harmondsworth, 1970).

History from below

Crew, David F., ‘“Alltagsgeschichte”: A New Social History “from below”?’, Central European History, 22 (1989), 394-407.

Kocka, Jürgen, ‘Theory and Social History: Recent Developments in West Germany’, Social Research, 47 (1980), 426-57.

Moore, Barrington, Injustice: The Social Bases of Obedience and Revolt (London, 1978).

*Scott, James C., Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven, Conn., 1990).

Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History (2nd edn.; Oxford, 1988).


Crew, David (ed.), Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945 (London, 1994).

Grunberger, Richard, A Social History of the Third Reich (Harmondsworth, 1974).

Hillenbrand, Fritz, Underground Humour in Nazi Germany, 1933-1945 (London, 1994).

Mühlberger, Detlef, Hitler’s Followers: Studies in the Sociology of the Nazi Movement (London, 1991).

PM Niethammer, Lutz (ed.), “Die Jahre weiß man nicht, wo man die heute hinsetzen soll”: Faschismuserfahrungen im Ruhrgebiet (W. Berlin/Bonn, 1983).

*Owings, Alison, Frauen: German Women Recall the Third Reich (Harmondsworth, 1995).

Passerini, Luisa (ed.), Memory and Totalitarianism (International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, vol. 1; Oxford, 1992).

*Peukert, Detlev, Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition and Racism in Everyday Life (London, 1989).

Steinhoff, Johannes et al., Voices from the Third Reich: An Oral History (London, 1991).


Bessel, Richard/Ralph Jessen (eds.), Die Grenzen der Diktatur: Staat und Gesellschaft in der DDR (Göttingen, 1996), 274-325.

Fulbrook, Mary, Anatomy of a Dictatorship: Inside the GDR 1949-1989 (Oxford, 1995), ch. 1.

Heins, Cornelia, The Wall Falls: An Oral History of the Reunification of the Two Germanies (London, 1994).

Holm, Hans Axel, The Other Germans: Report from an East German Town (London, 1971).

Hübner, Peter, ‘Sozialgeschichte in der DDR - Stationen eines Forschungsweges’, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, 34 (1992), 43-54.

Kaelble, Hartmut et al. (eds.), Sozialgeschichte der DDR (Stuttgart, 1994).

Niethammer, Lutz, Die volkseigene Erfahrung: Eine Archäologie des Lebens in der Industrieprovinz der DDR (Berlin, 1991).

________, ‘Where Were You On 17 June? A niche in memory’, International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, 1 (1992), 45-69.

*Ross, Corey, The East German Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives in the Interpretation of the GDR (London, 2002).