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Lecture 12

THE PROFESSIONS

 

Key Reading: Penny Corfield, Power and The Professions in Britain 1700-1850 (London, 1995), chaps. 1,2,7

 

1. Knowledge and Power
  • `Mystery', demeanor and clothing
  • Jargon and ethos
  • Numbers:-c. 1700 Gregory King est'd 10,000 householders `in the Law', also 10,000 clerics (2,000 eminent, 8,000 lesser - & another 16,000 were 'Persons in the Sciences and Liberal Arts' - doctors c. 8,000 - probabaly an overestimate
 
2. Lawyers
  • two legal traditions - England - law based on mixture of parliamentary statute and interprettive case law
  • Scots law - based on Roman civil law as modified by Eng. case law
  • Sir Matthew Hale -The History of the Common Law & Analysis of the Law 1713
  • superseded by Sir William Blackstone's 4 vol. Commentaries
  • 1756-9 - set out Engl's common law as a set of principles
  • barristers
  • attorneys
  • Act of 1733 - all proceedings in England's law courts & Scotland's Exchequer courts to be conducted & recorded in English rather than law-Latin
  • attornies in central law courts and regional courts - 1729-31 - 10,183 enrolled - but some enrolled for two or more courts c. 5,500-6,000 in the lower branch of the law in early 1730s
  • `Law Society'.
  • Judges

 

3. Doctors
  • Medical dress
  • Character
  • Collective Identity - Portraiture
  • Jenner
  • William and John Hunter
  • Man Midwifery
  • Surgeons
  • Hierarchy: Physicians
  • Surgeons
  • Apothecaries
  • Dissection: Act of 1752
  • Anatomy Act of 1832
  • Expansion of healthcare
  • Medical schools
  • 1726 - Edinburgh University - School of Medicine founded
  • England: private medical schools - foundation of great teaching hospitals - 1746-83 - William Hunter ran famous Great Windmill Street School for anatomy and dissection
  • Famous hospitals founded in the 18th Century: - The Westminster -1720, Guy's- 1724, St. George's - 1783 - the London- 1740, the Middlesex, 1745 - the Lying-In Hospital and the Rotunda in Dublin, 1745 & 1757, Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge 1766, Radcliffe Infirmary at Oxford - 1770

 

4. Trends
  • Earnings of professions
  • Status and Ethos