Skip to main content Skip to navigation

Lecture 6



1. How was industry organized during the eighteenth century?

Factory system or workshops and cottage production

J.H. Clapham (1930) – ancient and transitional types of industrial organization

Kentish iron; Birmingham brass and copper

Plural manufacturing structures

Artisan values and resistance to mechanization

2.Craft to Factory - myths

Dichotomies between pre-industrial and industrial societies

Hierarchical division of labour

Industrial society – wage dependency, proletarians

Pre-industrial society – master and servant, moral economy

3. Continuities

wage dependency – mining and ironmaking


  • labourers, cottagers and paupers – 47% of entire population
  • 60% of 17thC. labourers were engaged in by-employments
  • industrial labour force swelling the countryside
  • manufacturing towns – 37.3% of total urban population in 1750;

50% in 1801

4.Hierarchies of Labour

Freedoms and unfreedoms

Slave trade – 1807 legislation against the slave trade

Servants & pauper apprentices

  • Masters and servants legislation

5. Organised and Unorganized Trades

Organized trades – artisan enterprises and differentiation

Unorganized trades – new industries

6. London Trades – Embezzlement

division of labour and unemployment

watchmaking in Clerkenwell

goldsmiths and silversmiths

shoemaking – Clicking Act of 1723

hatters – 1732 – Hat Act

tailors – Combination Act

7. Attempts to Control the Labour Market

independence and respectability

trade - skill

8. Artisan institutions

a. friendly Societies

b. Houses of call

c. Tramping system

d. Apprenticeship

Public house; trade societies keeping members off the parish; control of time; pace of work

9. Factory and Machinery

factory and control over labour and pace of work

factories and unfree labour

factory sizes