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Indians in Patriotic Wars and Caste Wars in mid to late C19th Mexico

Patriotic Wars : For discussion

1. Why were the Liberals more successful than Conservatives in attracting Indian support during French Intervention (1862-1867)?

2. Who were Juan Francisco Lucas and “Pala” Agustín Dieguillo? Account for their enduring influence in the Puebla Sierra.

3. What role has Xochiapulco played in the history of the Sierra, the State of Puebla and Mexican history since 1855 ?


Guy Thomson and David LaFrance, "Juan Francisco Lucas; Patriarch of the Sierra Norte de Puebla", in William H Beezley and Judith Ewell, The Human Tradition in Latin American, 1-13

Guy Thomson, "Bulwarks of Patriotic Liberalism: the National Guard, Philharmonic Corps and Patriotic Juntas in Mexico, 1847-88", Journal of Latin American Studies Vol.22, 1990, 31-68

Guy Thomson "Popular Aspects of Liberalism in Mexico, 1848-1888" Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol.10, 1991, 265-292

Guy Thomson, “Memoirs and Memories of the European Intervention in the Sierra de Puebla, 1868- 1991” in Susan Deans-Smith and Eric Van Young, eds. Mexican Soundings Essays in Honour of David Brading 2007, 169-191.

Mallon, Florencia,"Reflections on the Ruins: Everyday Forms of State Formation in Nineteenth-Century Mexico," in Gilbert M. Joseph and Daniel Nugent eds., Everyday Forms of State Formation

Florencia Mallon, Peasant and Nation The Making of Post-Colonial Mexico and Peru, California, 1994. Final Chapter on Xochiapulco.

Guy Thomson, 'Agrarian Conflict in the Municipality of Cuetzalan (Sierra de Puebla): The Rise and Fall of "Pala" Agustin Dieguillo, 1861-1894,' Hispanic American Historical Review 71, 1991:205-58.

Guy Thomson with David LaFrance, Politics, Patriotism and Popular Liberalism in Nineteenth-Century Mexico, Juan Francisco Lucas and the Puebla Sierra 1999,SRC and e-books

Mary Kay Vaughan, Cultural Politics in Revolution Teachers, Peasants and Schools in Mexico, 1930-40, Chs. 5 & 6 (For Xochiapulco in the 20th Century)

Caste Wars : For discussion

1. Why did relations between Maya and Whites break down during the late 1840s in the Yucatan? Why did civil wars become a “caste war” ?

2. Is the term "caste war" a misnomer for describing the events in highland Chiapas between 1867 and 1870 ? (Rus)



Joseph, Gilbert, Rediscovering the Past at Mexico's Periphery pp.12-62 SRC (Good historiographical essay)

Nancy Farriss, Maya Society under Colonial Rule The Collective Enterprise of Survival Princeton, 1984, Ch.12, "The Second Conquest".

Terry Rugeley, Yucatan’s Peasantry and the Origins of the Caste War Austin, 1996.

See 1997 issue of the journal The Americas for article by Terry Rugeley on the cause of the Caste War in factional political conflicts and for several articles on the Caste War.

Victoria Reif1er de Bricker, The Indian Christ The Indian King,1981, Ch.8 "The Caste War of Yucatan (1847-1901)

Nelson Reed, The Caste War of Yucatan for a classic narrative.

Terry Rugeley, “The Maya Elites pf 19th C Yucatan”, Ethnohistory Vo.42, 1995, 477-93.

Robert Patch, Mayas and Spaniards in Yucatan, 1648-1812 Stanford 1993.

Robert Patch, "Decolonization, the Agrarian Problem, and the Origins of the Caste war, 1812-1847", in Jeffery T Brannon and Gilbert M Joseph, Land, Labor, and Capital in Modern Yucatan: essays in regional History and Political Economy, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press, 1991

For religious factors and of the Cult of the Speaking Cross

Terry Rugeley, Of Wonders and Wise Men Religion and Popular Cultures in Southeast Mexico, 1800-1876 chs.2, 4, 6, see especially pp.133-8 The Virgen of Tabi, pp.150-167 The Cult of San Antonio Xocneceh

Charlotte Zimmerman, “The Cult of the Holy Cross: An Analysis of Cosmology and Catholicism in Quintana Roo” History of Religions 3, 1963, 50-71 (SRC yellow books)

Paul Sullivan, Unfinished Conversations Mayas and Foreigners between the Wars

Don Dumond, “The Talking Crosses of Yucatan: A New Look at their History”, Ethnohistory 32, 1985


Jan Rus, "Whose Caste War ? Indians, Ladinos and the Chiapas 'Caste War' of 1869," in Spaniards and Indians in Southeastern Mesoamerica eds. Murdo MacLeod and Robert Wasserstrom, Nebraska, 1983, 127-68. SRC yellow books

Diane M Nelson “Crucifixion Stories, the 1869 Caste War of Chiapas, and Negative Consciousness: A Disruptive Subaltern Study”, American Ethnologist, Vol.24, May 1977, 331-354.

Victoria Reifler Bricker The Indian Christ, the Indian King Ch.9, "The War of Saint Rose in Chamula 1867-1870", pp.119-125, and recent folk memories of the war, pp.260-286.