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From Liberalism Patriotism to Indigenismo

For discussion

1. What was the ‘Indian Problem’?

2. How did liberal elites interpret the indigenous population past and present? Discuss the differences liberals perceived between contemporary and historic Indians.

3. What was indigenismo?

4. To what extend did it represent a substantial change from nineteenth-century ideologies?

Readings for 1+2

Bulnes, Francisco, El porvenir de las naciones latinoamericanas ante las recientes conquistas de Europe y Norteamérica (1899), (Mexico, n.d.).

Earle, Rebecca, ‘Padres de la Patria and the Ancestral Past: Celebrations of Independence in Nineteenth-Century Spanish America’, Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 34:4 (2002), pp. 775-805.

Earle, Rebecca, ‘Sobre Héroes y Tumbas: National Symbols in Nineteenth-Century Spanish America’, Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 85:3 (2005), pp. 375-416.

García Quintana, Josefina, Cuauhtémoc en el siglo XIX, UNAM (Mexico, 1977).

Hale, Charles, The Transformation of Liberalism in Late Nineteenth-Century Mexico, Princeton University Press (Princeton, 2989).

Powell, T. G., ‘Mexican Intellectuals and the Indian Question, 1876- 1911’, Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 48 (1968).

Sierra, Justo, ‘Elementos de historia patria’ (1894), and Catecismo de historia patria (1894), in Justo Sierra, Obras Completas, (Mexico, 1991).

Tenorio-Trillo, Mauricio, Mexico at the World’s Fairs: Crafting a Modern Nation, University of California Press (Berkeley, 1996).

Vázquez de Knauth, Josefina, Nacionalismo y educación en México, (Mexico, 1970).

Widdifield, Stacie, The Embodiment of the National in Late Nineteenth Century Mexican Painting (Tucson, 1996).

Readings for 3+4  

Brading, David, ‘Manuel Gamio and Official Indigenismo in Mexico’, Bulletin of Latin American Research 7:1 (1988).

Dawson, Alexander, ‘From Models for the Nation to Model Citizens: Indigenismo and the ‘Revindication’ of the Mexican Indian, 1920- 40’, Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 30 (1998).

Dawson, Alexander, “Wild Indians’, ‘Mexican Gentlemen’, and the Lessons Learned in the Casa del Estudiante Indígena, 1926- 1932’, The Americas 57:3 (2001).

Doremus, Anne, ‘Indigenismo, Mestizaje, and National Identity in Mexico during the 1940s and the 1950s’, Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 17:2 (2001).

Gamio, Manuel, Forjando Patria (1916), (Mexico, 1960).

Knight, Alan, ‘Racism, Revolution and Indigenismo: Mexico, 1910- 1940’, The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870-1940, ed. Richard Graham (Austin, 1990).

Vaughan, Mary Kay, The State, Education, and Social Class in Mexico, 1880-1928 (De Kalb, 1982).