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Case Study - The Seminole

For discussion

Why did the Seminoles adopt a policy of resistance? What did it entail and how were they able to do it? Was it effective?

How can we characterise the Seminole relationship with African Americans?

Why were the Seminoles unable to prevent US annexation of Florida?

Overall were the Seminoles more or less successful than the Cherokee?


  • J. Leitch Wright, Creeks and Seminoles
  • Jane F. Lancaster, Removal aftershock : the Seminoles' struggles to survive in the West, 1836-1866 .
  • James W. Covington, The Seminoles of Florida
  • Kevin Mulroy, Freedom on the border : the Seminole Maroons in Florida, the Indian Territory, Coahuila, and Texas .
  • K. Porter, The Black Seminoles
  • Theda Perdue, Nations Remembered: An Oral History of the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles in Oklahoma, 1865-1907