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Week Three - Taking Sides: Intellectuals and the Politics of High Culture

- Is Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four just an anti-communist text?

- How did intellectuals justify partisanship in the Cold War?

- Have we underestimated the influence that the state exerted on artistic and academic output?


Orwell, George, Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). PR.6029.R9 (or try bookshop)
Koestler, Arthur et al., The God that Failed (1950). JB.2300.K6
Riha, T., Readings in Russian Civilisation, iii (Chicago & London, 1964), ch. 54: ‘The Party and the Arts (Zhdanov and Khrushchev), 683-98. DK.32.R4 (handout)
Saunders, Frances Stonor, Who Paid the Piper?: The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London, 1999), chs. 4 & 16. E.812.5.S2 (handout)


Bowker, Gordon, George Orwell (London: Abacus, 2004). PR.6029.R9
Hitchens, Christopher, Orwell's Victory (London: Penguin, 2003). PR.6029.R9
Lewis, Peter, George Orwell: The Road to 1984 (London: Heinemann, 1981). PR.6029.R9
Lucas, Scott, The Betrayal of Dissent: Beyond Orwell, Hitchens and the New American Century (London: Pluto, 2004). on order
Shaw, Tony, 'Some Writers Are More Equal then Others': George Orwell, the State and Cold War Privilege', in Rana Mitter and Patrick Major (eds), Across the Blocs: Cold War Cultural and Social History (London: Cass, 2004). DA.843.A2
Shelden, Michael, Orwell: The Authorised Biography (London: Heinemann, 1991). PR.6029.R9
West, W.J., The Larger Evils: Nineteen Eighty-Four: The Truth behind the Satire (Edinburgh: Canongate, 1992). PR.6029.R9

Charles' George Orwell Links

The Arts

Berghahn, Volker R., America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe (Princeton, 2001). E.183.7.B3
Caute, David, The Dancer Defects: The Struggle for Cultural Supremacy During the Cold War (Oxford: OUP, 2003). PM
Coleman, Peter, The Liberal Conspiracy: The Congress for Cultural Freedom and the Struggle for the Mind of Postwar Europe (New York: Free Press, 1989). PM
Hewison, Robert, In Anger: Culture in the Cold War (London: Methuen, 1988). PR.477.H3
Judt, Tony, Past Imperfect: French Intellectuals 1944-1956 (Berkeley: UCALP, 1992). DC.33.7.J8
Kramer, Hilton, The Twilight of the Intellectuals: Culture and Politics in the Era of the Cold War (Chicago: Dee, 1999). E.812.5.K7
Lewis, John, The Philosophy of Betrayal: An Analysis of the Anti-Soviet Propaganda of Arthur Koestler and Others (London, 1945). JD10.P6
Lindey, Christine, Art in the Cold War: From Vladivostok to Kalamazoo, 1945-1962 (London, 1990). PM
May, Lary (ed.), Recasting America: Culture and Politics in the Cold War (Chicago, 1989). E.812.5.R3
Scott-Smith, Giles, The Politics of Apolitical Culture: The Congress for Cultural Freedom, the CIA and Post-War American Hegemony (London and New York: Routledge, 2002). PM
Shaw, Tony, 'Some Writers are More Equal than Others', in Rana Mitter and Patrick Major (eds), Across the Blocs (London: Cass, 2003). PM
Swayze, Harold, Political Control of Literature in the USSR, 1946-1959 (Cambridge, Mass.: HUP, 1962). PG.3026.C3
White, Anne, De-Stalinisation and the House of Culture: Declining State Control over Leisure in the USSR, Poland and Hungary (London: Routledge, 1990). PM
Wilford, Hugh, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? (London: Cass, 2003). PM
Williams, Rhys (ed.), German Writers and the Cold War, 1945-1961 (Manchester: MUP, 1992). PT.405P6
Zhdanov, A., On Literature, Music and Philosophy (London, 1950). DK.268.Z35


Arendt, Hannah, The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951). JB.2500.A7
Berlin, Isiah, ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’, pamJC.511.B3
Chomsky, Noam (ed.), The Cold War and the University: Toward an Intellectual History of the Postwar Years (New Press, 1997). PM
Connelly, John, Captive University: The Sovietization of East German, Czech and Polish Higher Education, 1945-1956 (University of North Carolina Press, 2000). 378.43/CON
Gollancz, Victor, Our Threatened Values (London, 1946), D.826.G6
Grienow-Hecht, Jessica C. E., ‘Shame on US? Academics, Cultural Transfer and the Cold War: A Critical Review’, Diplomatic History, 24 (2000), 465-94.
Engerman, David C. et al. (eds), Staging Growth: Modernization, Development, and the Global Cold War (Amherst & Boston, 2003). PM
Hayek, F. A., The Road to Serfdom (London: Routledge, 1944). JB.2500.H2
Latham, Michael E., ‘Ideology, Social Science and Destiny: Modernization and the Kennedy-Era Alliance for Progress’, Diplomatic History, 22 (1998), 199-229.
________, Modernization as Ideology: American Social Science and "Nation Building" in the Kennedy Era (Chapel Hill, 2000). PM
Marquis, Jefferson P., ‘The Other Warriors: American Social Science and Nation Building in Vietnam’, Diplomatic History, 24 (2000), 79-105.
Popper, Karl, The Open Society and its Enemies (London: Routledge, 1945). JB.2500.P6
Robin, Ron, The Making of the Cold War Enemy: Culture and Politics in the Military-Intellectual Complex (Princeton, NJ: PUP, 2001). PM
Simpson, Christopher (ed.), Universities and Empire: Money and Politics in the Social Sciences during the Cold War (New York, 1998). PM
Toynbee, Arnold J., Civilization on Trial (London: OUP, 1948). DA.27.T6