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What is Shari'a Law? Sources and Methods of the Muslim Jurists

Assigned Reading:
Wael Hallaq, An Introduction to Islamic Law (Cambridge University Press, 2009), chapter 2, “The Law: How is it Found?”
Kecia Ali, Imam Shafi‘i: Scholar and Saint (Oneworld, 2011), chapter 3, “Legal Theory I: The Risala, Sunna and Hadith.”

Primary Source:
al-Shāfiʿī, The Epistle on Legal Theory, trans. J. Lowry (New York University Press, 2013), Chapter on the Confirmation of Analogical Reasoning.
NB: This work is often referred to by scholars using its Arabic name: as the Risala fi usul al-fiqh or simply the Risala.

The following articles in the Enyclopaedia of Islam (available online via library catalog) may be useful: fiḳh, al-Ḳurʾān, Ḥadīth.