Cordon sanitaire; white towns and black towns
Crisis management: epidemic disease (small pox, cholera, plague,)
From a slow start to the main mode of mission work:
the nineteenth century
Germ theory (1870s)
Ronald Ross, Patrick Manson, G. B. Grassi and malaria
Teaching and research: state and capital
Liverpool and London (1899)
Colonial development and the role of health
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (1929)
2. Health and development in the postwar world
Industry, economic development and health
(cf. contemporary examples like SARS and avian ’flu)
The invention of international health
World Health Organisation
3. Colonial-postcolonial continuities
Vertical Limit: Malaria and DDT (1940-1960s)
‘vertical’ v ‘horizontal’ interventions
Inequalities of health
Economic benefits of health
Technology and dependency
4. Population control in India: Key points
Birth control in the early twentieth century: Urban men and international women
The Madras Neo-Malthusian League (est 1928) and Marie Stopes, Margaret Sanger and Eileen Palmer in the 1930s
Eugenics in India (publishing)
Birth control at independence: Nehru v Gandhi; Women's Role in Planned Economy
World Health Organization pilot projects (rhythm method)
Internationalizing population control- 1950s and 1960s
Cold War context (pace Green Revolution)
Demographic Transition Theory: Frank Notestein, Office of Population Research, Princeton University (funded by the Population Council/Rockefeller)
Kingsley Davis, The Population of India and Pakistan (1951).
Population control and the Indian state: continuity and change; neo-Malthusian triumphs - 1970s and 1980s
From family welfare to population control
Sterilization, the poor, Sanjay Gandhi and the 'Emergency' (1975-77)
After Cairo: From 'population control' to 'reproductive health'
UNFP- International Conference on Population and Development ('Cairo consensus'), 1994
First world v third world feminisms
Call for the removal of 'targets' and for an integrated approach to health care rather than a narrow focus on fertility
Kerala v Tamil Nadu and Bangladesh
Towards the twenty-first century: Not China and the planned rewards of a 'demographic bump'
Furedi: An Overview
If development is primarily concerned with the framing of poverty, is there a link between population and development?
Is there a link between poverty and population?
Is population growth really a problem?
This question (and its derivatives) is a tricky one, because ‘population’ is usually not about population
Intellectual stages of the encounter between population and development
- (1940-1955) At the outset, the evolution of the academic discipline of development was directly influenced by emerging apprehensions about the effects of population growth in the South. In this stage- the forties and much of the fifties- development was promoted as a solution to the population problem.
- (1955-1975) The relationship was reversed. More and more, specialists argued that population control was the prerequisite for development. Their contention was that population control would help overcome the obstacles that stood in the way of development. [technofixes]
- (1975- ) The link between population and development has diminished in significance. The difficulty of maintaining a plausible linkage between population and development has led to a reorientation of the discussion since the seventies. [fertility qua fertility; modernisation without development]