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Week 18: Hospitals

Lecturer: Margaret Charleroy

How did the hospital transform to a undesirable charitable institution for the poor to a mecca for modern medical technology? This session will highlight social, political, and technological forces that define this the transition of the medical institution in the US in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Discussion/Essay Questions

1- What factors contributed to the change in place of medical care, from home to hospital?

2- What role did technology play in changing patient perception of the hospital (from charitable to modern/desirable) in the twentieth century?

Required Readings:

Vogel, Morris. “The Transformation of the American Hospital,” in Institutions of Confinement: Hospitals, Asylums, and Prisons in Western Europe and North America, edited by Norbert Finzsch and Robert Jutte (Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1996), pp.39-54. [e-book]

Stevens, Rosemary, “Technology and the Workers: The Genesis of Blue Cross,” in In Sickness and in Wealth: American Hospitals in the Twentieth Century (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), pp.171-199. [e-book]

Further Readings:

Dowling, Harry F. City Hospitals: The Undercare of the Underprivileged. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Drachman, Virginia. Hospital with a Heart: Women Doctors and the Paradox of Separatism at the New England Hospital, 1862-1969. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984.

Drews, RS. “A History of the Care of the Sick Poor of the City of Detroit, 1703-1855.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 7 (1939): 759-82.

Foucault, Michel. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archeology of Medical Perception. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.

Gamble, Vanessa Northington. Making a Place for Ourselves: the Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Howell, Joel D. “Early Use of X-Ray Machines and Electrocardiographs at the Pennsylvania Hospital 1897 through 1927.” Journal of the American Medical Association 255 (17) (1986): 2320-3.

Howell, Joel D. Technology in the Hospital: Transforming Patient Care in the Early Twentieth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Larabee, Eric. The Benevolent and Necessary Institution: The New York Hospital, 1771-1971. New York: Doubleday, 1971.

Metaxas Quiroga, Virginia. “Female Lay Managers and Scientific Pediatrics and Nursing at Children’s Hospital, 1854-1910.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 60 (1986): 194-208.

Opdycke, Sandra. No One Was Turned Away: The Role of Public Health Hospitals in New York City Since 1900. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Reiser, Stanley J. Medicine and the Reign of Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Risse, Guenter B. Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Rosenberg, Charles E. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America’s Hospital System. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Publishers, 1987.

Rosenberg, Charles E. “Institutionalized Ambiguity: Conflict and Continuity in the American Hospital.” Second Opinion 12 (1989): 62-73.

Rosenberg, Charles E. “Inward Vision and Outward Glance: The Shaping of the American Hospital, 1880-1920.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 53 (1979): 346-91.

Rosner, David. A Once Charitable Enterprise: Hospitals and Health Care in Brooklyn and New York, 1885-1915. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Stevens, Rosemary. “Sweet Charity: State Aid to Hospitals in Pennsylvania, 1870-1910.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 58(3) (1984): 287-314.

Stevens, Rosemary. “Sweet Charity: State Aid to Hospitals in Pennsylvania, 1870-1910.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 58(4) (1984): 474-495.

Vogel, Morris. The Invention of the Modern Hospital: Boston, 1870-1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.