- Last lecture on Tuesday 30 April, 2-3, exceptionally in H5.45 ! Seminars at normal times & in normal venues
- In our final class we will try to put all the pieces together, to look back over the whole module and to refresh our memories of the main sections.
- Please post a c. 100 word FORUM contribution on one or more of the following questions: Was the Reformation inevitable? What were the core messages? How did Church and Empire change in the 16th century? Could the Reformation be termed a 'success'? Did it sow the seeds of religious tolerance? How do historians try to make sense of the events and processes of the sixteenth century?
- Priority reading: H. Hillerbrand, ‘Was there a Reformation in the sixteenth century?’, in Church History 72 (2003) & one of the week's e-resources
- Yes, Charles V should be seen as a failure (side to be taken by those of you with surnames beginning A-L);
- No, Charles V was a successful ruler (surnames M-Z);
- In preparation, consider the portraits on the seminar page, read W. Blockmans, Emperor Charles V: 1500-1558 (2002), esp. ch. 7: ' The image in balance', and look at further suggested priority readings.
- the extracts from Martin Luther's problematic late work On the Jews and their Lies (1543) [all]
- Marc R. Forster's book on Catholic Revival [task for those of you whose surnames begin with A-H]
- Bridget Heal's essay on 'Art and Identity' [surnames K-R]
- Wolfgang Reinhard's essay on 'Pressures towards Confessionalization?' [for those with surnames beginning with S-Z; there are several copies of this collection in the UL but please do not take them out and re-shelf the book after use]
- take a close look at Luther's Small Catechism of 1529 (and, ideally, the other primary materials accessible from the seminar page)
- read at least one of the following secondary texts (as assigned in the seminar or by email):
W. Bradford Smith, Reformation and the German Territorial State: Upper Franconia 1300-1630 (2008)
T. A. Brady, The Politics of the Reformation in Germany (1997)
R. Cahill, Philipp of Hesse and the Reformation (2002)
C. S. Dixon,The Reformation and Rural Society (1994)
" , L. Schorn-Schütte (eds), The Protestant Clergy of Early Modern Europe (2003) [esp. essay by Goodale]
H. Grimm, Lazarus Spengler: A Lay Leader of the Reformation (1978)
S. H. Hendrix, ‘Loyalty, piety or opportunism: German princes and the Reformation’, J. Interdisc. H. 25 (1994)
H. Schilling, ‘Confessionalization’, in his: Religion, Political Culture and the Emergence of Early Modern Society (1992)
R. W. Scribner, ‘Politics and the institutionalisation of reform in Germany’, in New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 2, ed. G. R. Elton (1990 edn only)
- Proposition: 'The Reformation enhanced the position of women in German society'
- Please prepare for your assigned stand by looking through the seminar materials, esp.
- Primary sources: Luther on Women and the female voices of Grumbach, Pirckheimer and Schütz Zell
- Secondary works: upbeat assessment in Ozment, When Fathers Ruled compared to critical views expressed by Karant-Nunn or Roper and consult general gender surveys by Stjerna or Wiesner
- Upload your best arguments and evidence onto the respective thread in our module forum
- Peter Blickle, The Communal Reformation: The Quest for Salvation in 16thC Germany (Atlantic Highlands, 1992), esp. ch. 3: 'Burghers' Reformation', 63-97
- R.W. Scribner, 'Why was there no Reformation in Cologne?', in: Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 49 (1976), 117-41
- ... and, for constitutional / visual / geographical contextualization, browse the e-resources listed on the seminar page
- The primary source we will be discussing is 'The Schleitheim Confession' of the Swiss Brethren (1527) - how did their beliefs / practices differ from the mainstream Protestants? What was important to Anabaptists?
- Choose one item from the priority / further reading on the seminar page and upload a 150-word review to the FORUM
- The Wendelstein Church Ordinances of 1524 (providing us with insights into the reception of evangelical doctrines in a Franconian village)
- The Twelve Articles of the Upper Swabian Peasants (late February 1525)
- One secondary literature item from the priority readings on the seminar webpage to feed into our discussions
- Find a woodcut illustration, preferably from the large edition The Single-Leaf Woodcut, ed. Strauss in the UL, any general book on the German Reformation or by browsing our digital resources; consider its message, method, likely impact and be prepared to share your thoughts briefly with the group;
- Read Bernd Moeller's essay 'What was preached in German towns in the early Reformation?', in: Scott Dixon (ed.), The German Reformation: The Essential Readings (Oxford, 1999), 33-52, as a starting-point to think about the role of sermons and instruction from the pulpit.
- A. E. McGrath, Reformation Thought (fourth edn 2012 or earlier versions)
- To get a flavour of Luther's language, style and arguments also look at one of the key 1520s tracts ('Address to the Nobility', 'Babylonian Captivity', 'Freedom of a Christian'), ideally in the translations in the American Works edn (UL classmark: BR 330.E6) or an online version (through our digital resources page)
- Priority reading: Ulinka Rublack, Reformation Europe (Cambridge, 2005), ch. 1: 'Martin' Luther's Truth', pp. 12-64
- Those wishing to go deeper should tackle a Luther biography, e.g. the work by Bainton, Brecht, Kittelson, Mullett, Roper ..., and delve into the multi-volume edition of Luther's Works in the UL (see also our digital resources page for samples / further scholarship)
- Before the seminar, post a c. 100 word-statement on the question of Luther's 'greatness' on the module forum
- 'The late medieval Church was a vibrant and powerful institution' (Calum, Claudia, Daniel, Jacob, Jess, Kieran, Olivia, Thomas H.)
- 'The late medieval Church underwent terminal decline' (Adam, Gregory, Kevin, Morgan, Neal, Thomas M., Will)
- Johannes Geiler von Keysersberg, 'Sermon on the Ants' (March 20, 1508) - work of a noted Strasbourg preacher
- Adam, Morgan, Tom M., Will - parish-focused religion (e.g. masses/sacraments, rites of passage, church building, pious bequests ...): Blickle, 'Peasant Piety'; Kümin & Marshall, 'Church & People'; Moeller, 'Religious Life'
- Gregory, Kevin, Kieran - extra-parochial spirituality (e.g. Devotio Moderna, pilgrimages ...): Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ (c. 1418); Soergel, 'Pilgrimages'; Zika, 'Pilgrimages'
- Daniel, Jacob, Neal, Olivia - Humanism (represented by protagonists like Erasmus, Reuchlin ...): works by Bernstein, Brann, Spitz, Overfield
- Calum, Claudia, Jess, Thomas H. - unorthodox and magical practices (Hussites, pagan beliefs, witchcraft ...): Scribner, Popular Culture, chs. 1-2, and works by Fudge and Gurevich
- One focal point of the discussions will be the 'The Statement of Grievances presented to the Diet of Worms in 1521', in: G. Strauss (ed.), Manifestations of Discontent in Germany on the Eve of the Reformation (Bloomington, 1971), 52-63, to be considered alongside the socio-economic passages of the 'Reformatio' examined last week;
- To help us determine the respective fortunes of the peasantry, town burghers and other social groups, we'll also draw on the specialized literature listed on the seminar page. Try to report what light these works shed on the seminar questions relating to agrarian developments, the experience of living in towns and how 'hard' late medieval life was in the Holy Roman Empire. Can we divide the works up as follows (please do not take these items out of the library):
- Abel, Fluctuations: Adam, Brian
- Eisenstein, Printing Revolution: Calum, Claudia
- Du Boulay, Germany: Daniel, Gregory
- Kümin, 'German village', with associated bibliography: Jacob, Jess
- Rösener, Peasants: Kieran, Liv
- Scott, Society and Economy: Morgan, Neal
- Scribner (ed.), Economic History: Tom H., Will
- Strauss (ed.), Pre-Reformation Germany: Tom M.
Autumn Week 2 - Politics & Tensions
- The concerns and proposals expressed in the Reformatio Sigismundi', a tract written in the 1430s and edited in: G. Strauss (ed.), Manifestations of Discontent in Germany on the Eve of the Reformation (Bloomington, 1971), 3-31
- The survey of conditions in the Holy Roman Empire during the late Middle Ages provided by M. Hughes, Early Modern Germany 1477-1806 (Basingstoke, 1992), ch. 2: Germany on the Eve of the Reformation
- The Reformation-related books you found in the Library; please select one each, either a title from the seminar bibliography or any other interesting text you found nearby on the shelves, and prepare a 1-minute summary of theme and coverage
Autumn Week 1 - Introduction and Organization [click on title for access to seminar materials]
- Welcome to the seminars - please prepare for the first session by reading the following general survey article:
- H. Cohn, 'The Long Reformation - Lutheran', in: B. Kümin (ed.), The European World (2009 or subsequent editions)