- Why did most imperial free cities adopt the Reformation, but some not?
- What were the pros & cons of changing your religion?
- Who made this important decision?
- Text and Diagram illustrating the Constitution of the City of Strasbourg (1482), which struck a balance of power between different social groups
- P. Blickle, The Communal Reformation: The Quest for Salvation in Sixteenth-Century Germany, trans. Th. Dunlap (1992) esp. ch. 3: 'Burghers' Reformation'
- R. W. Scribner, 'Why was there no Reformation in Cologne?', in: Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 49 (1976) [pdf download]
- City prospects of Nuremberg and Cologne around 1500
- Map: Germany with Imperial and other Cities (c. 1555)
- ... and, on a lighter note, an American tourist introduction to the imperial free city of Nuremberg
Further reading (recommended in bold)
Brady, T. A. Jr, Ruling Class, Regime and Reformation at Strasbourg 1520-55 (1978)
Chrisman, M. U., Strasbourg and the Reform (1967)
Christ, Martin, 'The Failure of the Reformation in Schwäbisch-Gmünd', in: Reinvention: a Journal of Undergraduate Research 5 (1/2012)
" , 'The Town Chronicle of Johannes Hass: History Writing and Divine Intervention in the Early Sixteenth Century', in: German History 35 (1/2017), 1-20 [advance online publication, December 2016]
Close, C. W., The Negotiated Reformation: Imperial Cities and the Politics of Urban Reform 1525-1550 (2009)
Dickens, A. G., The German Nation and Martin Luther (1974)
Grimm, H., Lazarus Spengler: A Lay Leader of the Reformation [Nuremberg] (1978)
Hamm, B., Lazarus Spengler (Tübingen, 2004) [in German]
Moeller, B., Imperial Cities and the Reformation: Three Essays (1972)
Ozment, S.,The Reformation in the Cities: The Appeal of Protestantism to Sixteenth-Century Germany and Switzerland (1975)
Schilling, H., ‘The Reformation in the Hanseatic Cities’, Sixteenth Century Journal 14 (1983)
- Assess the late medieval roots of the urban Reformation in Germany.
- Why was the early Reformation so successful in German towns?
- To what extent did theological doctrines reflect the socio-political background of the reformers?
- Was the German Reformation an ‘urban event’?
Inscription commemorating the beginning of the Reformation at the Grossmünster church in Zurich (pic: Christian Bickel, 2007)
West facade of St Laurence, Nuremberg, one of the imposing parish churches of this imperial free city. Pic: Jailbird 2006 (Creative Commons)