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This module uses two textbooks, detailed below. Throughout the syllabus these are referred to as Imber and Quataert. Extracts from the textbooks will be assigned most weeks and their purpose is to give you the necessary background to help you understand the lecture and the assigned readings. They both also contain useful guides to further reading which may be useful when working on your essays. Copies of these textbooks are available in the campus bookstore, if you wish to buy them. You can buy one or both if you want, but you don't have to: the library holds 3 copies of each on short loan, and you have access to the e-book versions via the library catalogue.

Colin Imber, The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power, second edition (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

Donald Quataert, The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922, second edition (Cambridge University Press, 2005)

Assigned Readings

I have assigned one primary source and one or two secondary readings for each class. These will form the basis of the seminar discussions. Details of all assigned readings can be found within the Lecture and Seminar Programme section of this website.

Further Reading
You can use this bibliography as a starting point when working on your essays, or if you want to read more widely on a particular topic. See also the guides for further reading in the two textbooks, and the suggestions I have given of further readings relevant to each weekly topic.

Reference Works
The Cambridge History of Turkey.
The Cambridge History of Egypt. Volume 2 covers the period of Ottoman rule in Egypt.
The New Cambridge History of Islam. Volumes 2, 4 and 5 are relevant to this module.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam.

All of the above are available electronically via the library website.

General Works
Gabor Agoston and Bruce Masters, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire (New York: Facts on File, 2009).
Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, 2 vols. (London: Collins, 1972-3).
Stephen F. Dale, The Muslim Empires of the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
Suraiya Faroqhi, The Ottoman Empire: A Short History (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2008).
Caroline Finkel, Osman’s Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire (London: John Murray, 2006).
Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, 3 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977).
Halil Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age, 1300-1600 (London: Phoenix, 2000).
Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert (eds.), An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Ira Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
Francis Robinson, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World (Cambridge UP, 1996).
Stanford Shaw & Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, 2 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976-77).

Christine Woodhead, The Ottoman World (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012).

Published Primary Sources
Samer Akkach (ed.), Letters of a Sufi Scholar: The Correspondence of 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi, 1641-1731 (Leiden: Brill, 2010)
Camron Michael Amin et al, ​The Modern Middle East: A Sourcebook for History​ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).
Walter Andrews, Najaat Black and Mehmet Kalpaklı (ed. and trans.), Ottoman Lyric Poetry: An Anthology (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006).
Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, The Turkish Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, Imperial Ambassador at Constantinople, 1554-1562, trans. Edward Seymour Forster (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005).
Laonikos Chalkokondyles, The Histories, trans. Anthony Kaldellis (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2014).
Richard Clogg, The Movement for Greek Independence, 1770-1821: A Collection of Documents (London: Macmillan, 1976).
Julia Cohen and Sarah Stein, Sephardi Lives: A Documentary History, 1700-1950 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014).
Howard Crane and Esra Akin (eds.), Sinan's Autobiographies: FIve Sixteenth-Century Texts (Leiden: Brill, 2006).
Vahram Dadrian, To the Desert: Pages from my Diary (Princeton: Gomidas Institute, 2003).
Robert Dankoff (ed.), The Intimate Life of an Ottoman Statesman: Melek Ahmed Pasha (1588-1662), As Portrayed in Evliya Celebi's Book of Travels (Seyahat-name) (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991).
Doukas, Decline and Fall of Byzantium to the Ottoman Turks: an Annotated Translation of "Historia Turco-Byzantina," trans. Harry J. Magoulias (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1975).
Halide Edib, House with Wisteria: Memoirs of Turkey Old and New (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2009)
Evliya Çelebi, An Ottoman Traveller: Selections from the Book of Travels of Evliya Celebi, trans. Robert Dankoff and Sooyong Kim (London: Eland, 2010).
Matt Goldish, Jewish Questions: Responsa on Sephardic Life in the Early Modern Period (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008).
'Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti, Napoleon in Egypt: al-Jabarti's Chronicle of the French Occupation, 1798, trans. Shmuel Moreh (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2004).
‘Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti, Al-Jabarti’s History of Egypt, ed. Jane Hathaway (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2005).
Kritovoulos, History of Mehmed the Conqueror, trans. Charles Riggs (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1970).
Sa'adi Besalel a-Levi, A Jewish Voice from Ottoman Salonica: The Ladino Memoir of Sa'adi Besalel a-Levi, trans. Isaac Jerusalmi (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012).
Mary Wortley Montagu, Turkish Embassy Letters (London: Pickering & Chatto, 1993).
Muhammad al-Muwaylihi, What ʿIsa ibn Hisham Told Us, or, A Period of Time, trans. Roger Allen (New York: New York University Press, 2015).
Karnig Panian, Goodbye, Antoura: A Memoir of the Armenian Genocide (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015).
Susan Skilliter, William Harborne and the Trade with Turkey, 1578-1582: A Documentary Study of the First Anglo-Ottoman Relations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977).
Theodore Spandounes, On the Origin of the Ottoman Emperors, trans. Donald M. Nicol (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

Rifaʿa Rafiʿ al-Tahtawi, An Imam in Paris: Account of a Stay in France by an Egyptian Cleric, 1826-1831, trans. Daniel Newman (London: Saqi, 2011).

Fikret Adanir and Suraiya Faroqhi (eds.), The Ottomans and the Balkans: A Discussion of Historiography (Leiden: Brill, 2002).
Jane Hathaway, “Re-writing Eighteenth-Century Ottoman History,” Mediterranean Historical Review 19 (2004), 29-53.
Cemal Kafadar, “The Question of Ottoman Decline,” Harvard Middle Eastern & Islamic Review 4 (1997-8), 30-75. NB This journal is difficult to track down: if you want a copy of this article contact me.
Anthony Kaldellis, A New Herodotos: Laonikos Chalkokonlydes on the Ottoman Empire, the Fall of Byzantium and the Emergence of the West (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2014).
Zachary Lockman, Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Leslie Peirce, “Changing Perceptions of the Ottoman Empire: The Early Centuries,” Mediterranean Historical Review 19 (2004), 6-28.
Christine Philliou, “The Paradox of Perceptions: Interpreting the Ottoman Past through the National Present,” Middle Eastern Studies 44 (2008), 661-75.
Edward Said, Orientalism (London: Penguin, 2003).

Dror Ze’evi, “Back to Napoleon? Thoughts on the Beginning of the Modern Era in the Middle East,” Mediterranean Historical Review 19 (2004), 73-94.

Early Ottoman History (13th - 15th Centuries)
Franz Babinger, Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978)
Cemal Kafadar, Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996).

Heath Lowry, The Nature of the Early Ottoman State (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003).

Middle Period of Ottoman History (16th - 18th Centuries)
Rif‘at Ali Abou-el-Haj, Formation of the Modern State: The Ottoman Empire, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005).
Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman (eds.), The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Karen Barkey, Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Oktay Ozel, The Collapse of Rural Order in Ottoman Anatolia: Amasya, 1576-1643 (Brill, 2016).
Baki Tezcan, The Second Ottoman Empire: Political and Social Transformation in the Early Modern World (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Later Ottoman History (19th - 20th Centuries)
James Gelvin, The Modern Middle East: A History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Şükrü Hanioğlu, A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010).

The Empire's European Provinces
Frederick Anscombe (ed.), The Ottoman Balkans, 1750-1830 (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2006).
Marc Aymes, A Provincial History of the Ottoman Empire: Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean in the Nineteenth Century (London: Routledge, 2013).
Ebru Boyar and Kate Fleet, A Social History of Ottoman Istanbul (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
Amila Buturovic and Irvin Cemil Schick (eds.), Women in the Ottoman Balkans: Gender, Culture and History (London: IB Tauris, 2007).
Cathie Carmichael, A Concise History of Bosnia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
Özlem Çaykent and Luca Zavagno, The Islands of the Eastern Mediterranean: A History of Cross-Cultural Encounters (London: IB Tauris, 2014).
Richard Clogg, A Concise History of Greece, 3rd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
K.E. Fleming, The Muslim Bonaparte: Diplomacy and Orientalism in Ali Pasha's Greece (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014).
James Forsyth, The Caucasus: A History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
Rossitsa Gradeva, Rumeli under the Ottomans, 15th-18th Centuries: Institutions and Communities (Istanbul: Isis, 2004).
Molly Greene, A Shared World: Christians and Muslims in the Early Modern Mediterranean (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).
Keith Hitchins, A Concise History of Romania (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).
Gabor Karman and Lovro Kuncevic (eds.), The European Tributary States of the Ottoman Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Leiden: Brill, 2013).
Heath Lowry, The Shaping of the Ottoman Balkans: The Conquest, Settlement and Infrastructural Development of Northern Greece, 1350-1550 (Istanbul: Bahçeşehir University Publications, 2008).
Mark Mazower, The Balkans: From the End of Byzantium to the Present Day (London: Phoenix, 2000).
Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430-1950 (Harper, 2005).
Bruce McGowan, Economic Life in Ottoman Europe: Taxation, Trade and the Struggle for Land, 1600-1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
Serhii Plokhy, The Gates of Europe: A History of Ukraine (London: Allen Lane, 2015).
Deena Sadat, “Rumeli Ayanlari: The Eighteenth Century,” Journal of Modern History 44 (1972), pp. 346-63.

Peter Sugar, Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354-1804 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977).

The Ottoman Ruling Elite
Virginia Aksan, An Ottoman Statesman in War and Peace: Ahmed Resmi Efendi, 1700-1783 (Leiden: Brill, 1995).
Robert Dankoff, An Ottoman Mentality: The World of Evliya Çelebi (Leiden: Brill, 2004).
Carter Vaughn Findlay, Ottoman Civil Officialdom: A Social History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989).
Cornell Fleischer, Bureaucrat and Intellectual in the Ottoman Empire: The Historian Mustafa Ali, 1541-1600 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986).
Jane Hathaway, The Politics of Households in Ottoman Egypt: The Rise of the Qazdağlıs (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Jane Hathaway, Beshir Agha: Chief Eunuch of the Ottoman Imperial Harem (Oxford: Oneworld, 2006).
Metin Kunt, The Sultan’s Servants: The Transformation of Ottoman Provincial Government, 1550-1650 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983).
Metin Kunt, “Ethnic-Regional (Cins) Solidarity in the Seventeenth-Century Ottoman Establishment,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 5 (1974), 233-9.
Michael Nizri, Ottoman High Politics and the Ulema Household (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
Oualdi, M'hamed, Esclaves et maitres: les Mamelouks des beys de Tunis du XVIIe siècle aux années 1880 (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2011).
Leslie Peirce, The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
Kaya Şahin, Empire and Power in the Reign of Süleyman: Narrating the Sixteenth-Century Ottoman World (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
Theoharis Stavrides, The Sultan of Vezirs: The Life and Times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelovic, 1453-1474 (Leiden: Brill, 2001).
Ali Yaycioglu, Partners of the Empire: The Crisis of the Ottoman Order in the Age of Revolutions (Stanford University Press, 2016).

Madeline Zilfi, “Elite Circulation in the Ottoman Empire,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 26 (1983), pp. 318-64.

Ottoman-European Relations, Fifteenth-Eighteenth Centuries
Rifa‘at Ali Abou-el-Haj, “Ottoman Attitudes toward Peace-Making: The Karlowitz Case,” Der Islam 51 (1974), pp. 131-7.
Gabor Agoston, “Information, ideology and limits of imperial policy: Ottoman grand strategy in the context of Ottoman-Habsburg rivalry,” in The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire, ed. Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 75-103.
Palmira Brummett, Ottoman Seapower and Levantine Diplomacy in the Age of Discovery (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994).
Giancarlo Casale, The Ottoman Age of Exploration (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).
John-Paul Ghobrial, The Whispers of Cities: Information Flows in Istanbul, London and Paris in the Age of William Trumbull (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
Daniel Goffman, The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
Molly Greene, Catholic Pirates and Greek Merchants: A Maritime History of the Mediterranean (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010).
A.H. de Groot, The Ottoman Empire and the Dutch Republic: A History of the Earliest Diplomatic Relations, 1610-1630 (Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije-Oosten, 2012).
Andrew Hess, “The Ottoman Conquest of Egypt (1517) and the Beginning of the Sixteenth-Century World War,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 4 (1973), 55-76.
Andrew Hess, “The Battle of Lepanto and its Place in Mediterranean History,” Past and Present 57 (1972), 53-73.
Christine Isom-Verhaaren, Allies with the Infidel: The Ottoman and French Alliance in the Sixteenth Century (London: IB Tauris, 2011).
William McNeill, Europe’s Steppe Frontier, 1500-1800 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975).
Rhoads Murphey, “Süleyman I and the Conquest of Hungary: Ottoman Manifest Destiny or a Delayed Reaction to Charles V’s Universalist Vision,” Journal of Early Modern History 5 (2001), 197-221.
Natalie Rothman, Brokering Empire: Trans-Imperial Subjects between Venice and Istanbul (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012).

Lucette Valensi, The Birth of the Despot: Venice and the Sublime Porte (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993).

Islam in the Ottoman Empire
Samer Akkach, 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi: Islam and the Enlightenment (Oxford: Oneworld, 2007).
Marc Baer, Honored by the Glory of Islam: Conversion and Conquest in Ottoman Europe (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).
Rachida Chih and Catherine Mayeur-Jaouen (ed.), Sufism in the Ottoman Era, 16th-18th Century (Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 2010).
John J. Curry, The Transformation of Muslim Mystical Thought in the Ottoman Empire: The Rise of the Halveti Order, 1350-1650 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010).
Tijana Krstic, Contested Conversions to Islam: Narratives of Religious Change in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011).
Dina Le Gall, A Culture of Sufism: Naqshbandis in the Ottoman World, 1450-1700 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2013).
Anton Minkov, Conversion to Islam in the Balkans: Kisve Bahası Petitions and Ottoman Social Life, 1670-1730 (Leiden: Brill, 2004).
Stefan Reichmuth, The World of Murtada al-Zabidi (1732-91): Life, Networks and Writings (Cambridge: Gibb Memorial Trust, 2009).
Elizabeth Sirriyeh, Sufi Visionary of Ottoman Damascus: 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi, 1641-1731 (London: Routledge, 2011).
Speros Vrynois, Jr., The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh to the Fifteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983).
Madeline Zilfi, “The Kadızadelis: Discordant Revivalism in Seventeenth-Century Istanbul,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 45 (1986), pp. 251-69.

Madeline Zilfi, The Politics of Piety: The Ottoman Ulema in the Postclassical Age, 1600-1800 (Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1988).

Non-Muslims in the Ottoman Empire
Febe Armanios, Coptic Christianity in Ottoman Egypt (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).
Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society​ (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1982).
Michelle Campos, Ottoman Brothers: Muslims, Christians and Jews in Early Twentieth-Century Palestine (Stanford University Press, 2011).
Molly Greene, The Edinburgh History of the Greeks, 1453-1774: The Ottoman Empire (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2015).
Jane Hathaway, “The Grand Vizier and the False Messiah: The Sabbatai Sevi Controversy and the Ottoman Reform in Egypt,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 117 (1997), 665-71.
Svetlana Ivanova, “Muslim and Christian Women before the Kadi Court in Eighteenth-Century Rumeli: Marriage Problems,” Oriente Moderno, n.s. 18 (1999), 161-76.
Ruth Lamdan, A Separate People: Jewish Women in Palestine, Syria and Egypt during the Sixteenth Century (Leiden: Brill, 2000).
Bruce Masters, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World: The Roots of Sectarianism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Ayşe Ozil, Orthodox Christians in the Late Ottoman Empire: A Study of Communal Relations in Anatolia (Abingdon: Routledge, 2013).
Tom Papademetriou, Render unto the Sultan: Power, Authority and the Greek Orthodox Church in the Early Ottoman Centuries (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).
Najwa Al-Qattan, “Dhimmis in the Muslim Court: Legal Autonomy and Religious Discrimination,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 31 (1999), 429-44.
Cengiz Şişman, The Burden of Silence: Sabbatai Sevi and the Evolution of the Ottoman-Turkish Dönmes (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015).

Baki Tezcan, “Ethnicity, race, religion and social class,” The Ottoman World, ed. Christine Woodhead (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012).

The Economy and Trade
Sebouh David Aslanian, From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa (Berkeley: University of California Pres, 2011).
Edhem Eldem, French Trade in Istanbul in the Eighteenth Century (Leiden: Brill, 1999).
Edhem Eldem, Daniel Goffman and Bruce Masters, The Ottoman City between East and West: Aleppo, Izmir and Istanbul (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Suraiya Faroqhi, Artisans of Empire: Crafts and Craftspeople under the Ottomans (London: IB Tauris, 2011).
Kate Fleet, European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
V. Necla Geyikdağı, Foreign Investment in the Ottoman Empire: International Trade and Relations, 1854-1914 (London: IB Tauris, 2011).
Daniel Goffman, Izmir and the Levantine World, 1550-1650 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990).
Daniel Goffman, Britons in the Ottoman Empire, 1642-1660 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998).
Alastair Hamilton, Alexander H. de Groot and Maurits H. van den Boogert (eds.), Friends and Rivals in the East: Studies in Anglo-Dutch Relations in the Levant from the Seventeenth to the Early Nineteenth Century (Leiden: Brill, 2000).
Huri İslamoğlu-İnan (ed.), The Ottoman Empire and the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Cemal Kafadar, “A Death in Venice (1575): Anatolian Muslim Merchants Trading in the Serenissima,” Journal of Turkish Studies 10 (1986), pp. 191-218.
Reşat Kasaba, The Ottoman Empire and the World Economy: The Nineteenth Century (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988).
Timur Kuran, The Long Divergence: How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011).
Christine Laidlaw, The British in the Levant: Trade and Perceptions of the Ottoman Empire in the Eighteenth Century (London: IB Tauris, 2010).
Philip Mansel, Aleppo: The Rise and Fall of Syria's Great Merchant City (London: IB Tauris, 2016).
Bruce Masters, The Origins of Western Economic Dominance in the Middle East: Mercantilism and the Islamic Economy in Aleppo, 1600-1750 (New York: New York University Press, 1988).
Roger Owen, The Middle East in the World Economy, 1800-1914 (London: IB Tauris, 1993).
Şevket Pamuk, A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Şevket Pamuk, The Ottoman Empire and European Capitalism, 1820-1913 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
Donald Quataert, Manufacturing in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, 1500-1950 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994).
Despina Vlami, Trading with the Ottomans: The Levant Company in the Middle East (London: IB Tauris, 2015).

Sibel Zandi-Sayek, Ottoman Izmir: The Rise of a Cosmpolitan Port, 1840-1880 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011).

Military Conflict
Gabor Agoston, “Ottoman Warfare, 1453-1826,” in European Warfare, 1453-1815, ed. Jeremy Black (London: St. Martin’s Press, 1999), pp. 118-44.
Gabor Agoston, Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
Gabor Agoston, "Empires and Warfare in East-Central Europe, 1550-1750: the Ottoman-Habsburg Rivalry and Military Transformation," in European Warfare, 1350-1750, ed. Frank Tallett and D.J.B. Trim (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
Virginia Aksan, “Ottoman War and Warfare, 1453-1812,” in War in the Early Modern World, ed. Jeremy Black (London: UCL Press, 1999), pp. 147-75.
Virginia Aksan, Ottoman Wars 1700-1870: An Empire Besieged (Harlow: Pearson, 2007).
Rhoads Murphey, Ottoman Warfare, 1500-1700 (London: UCL Press, 1999).

Rhoads Murphey, "Ottoman Military Organization in Southeastern Europe, c. 1420-1720," in European Warfare, 1350-1750, ed Frank Tallett and D.J.B. Trim (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Reform in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
On Barak, On Time: Technology and Temporality in Modern Egypt (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).
Bedross Der Matossian, Shattered Dreams of Revolution: From Liberty to Violence in the Late Ottoman Empire (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014).
Emine Önhan Evered, Empire and Education under the Ottomans: Politics, Reform and Resistance from the Tanzimat to the Young Turks (London: IB Tauris, 2012).
Khaled Fahmy, All the Pasha’s Men: Mehmed Ali, His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2002).
Khaled Fahmy, Mehmed Ali: From Ottoman Governor to Ruler of Egypt (Oxford: Oneworld, 2009).
Khaled Fahmy, “The Anatomy of Justice: Forensic Medicine and Criminal Law in Nineteenth-Century Egypt,” Islamic Law and Society 6 (1999), pp. 224-71.
Carter Vaughn Findlay, “The Tanzimat,” Cambridge History of Turkey, vol. 4, pp. 11-37.
Carter Vaughn Findlay, Bureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Sublime Porte, 1789-1922 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980).
Benjamin Fortna, Imperial Classroom: Islam, the State and Education in the Late Ottoman Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
Halil Inalcik, “Application of the Tanzimat and its Social Effects,” Archivum Ottomanicum 5 (1973), pp. 97-128.
Şerif Mardin, The Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought: A Study in the Modernization of Turkish Political Ideas (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962).
Rudolph Peters, “Administrators and Magistrates: The Development of a Secular Judiciary in Egypt, 1842-1871,” Die Welt des Islams n.s. 39 (1999), pp. 378-97.
Christine Philliou, Biography of an Empire: Governing Ottomans in an Age of Revolution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011).
Donald Quataert, “The Age of Reforms, 1812-1914,” in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, ed. Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 759-943.
Avi Rubin, Ottoman Nizamiye Courts: Law and Modernity (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).
Amira el-Azhary Sonbol, The Creation of a Medical Profession in Egypt, 1800-1922 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1991).
Avner Wishnitzer, Reading Clocks, alla Turca: Time and Society in the Late Ottoman Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015).

M. Alper Yalcinkaya, Learned Patriots: Debating Science, State and Society in the Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015).

Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, revised edition (London: Verso, 2006).
Richard Clogg, A Concise History of Greece, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
R.J. Crampton, A Concise History of Bulgaria, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
Thomas Gallant, The Edinburgh History of the Greeks, 1768-1913: The Long Nineteenth Century (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2015).
Fatma Müge Göçek, Social Constructions of Nationalism in the Middle East​ (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002).
Dimitri Gondicas & Charles Issawi, Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism: Politics, Economy and Society in the Nineteenth Century (Princeton: Darwin Press, 1999).
David Kushner, The Rise of Turkish Nationalism, 1876-1908 (London: Cass, 1977).
Petros Pizanias (ed.), The Greek Revolution of 1821: A European Event (Istanbul: Isis, 2011).
Victor Roudometof, “From Rum Millet to Greek Nation: Enlightenment, Secularization and National Identity in Ottoman Balkan Society, 1453-1821,” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 16 (1998), pp. 11-48.

Terence Spencer, Fair Greece! Sad Relic; Literary Philhellenism from Shakespeare to Byron (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1954).

European Influence and Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century
Engin Akarli, The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
Murat Birdal, The Political Economy of Ottoman Public Debt: Insolvency and European Financial Control in the Late Nineteenth Century (London: IB Tauris, 2010).
Benjamin Claude Brower, A Desert Named Peace: The Violence of France’s Empire in the Algerian Sahara, 1844-1902 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011).
Julia Clancy-Smith, Rebel and Saint: Muslim Notables, Populist Protest, Colonial Encounters (Algeria and Tunisia, 1800-1904) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
Juan Cole, Napoleon’s Egypt: Invading the Middle East (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
Turan Kayaoğlu, Legal Imperialism: Sovereignty and Extraterritoriality in Japan, the Ottoman Empire and China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
Ussama Makdisi, The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).
Roger Owen, Lord Cromer: Victorian Imperialist, Edwardian Proconsul (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

David Rodogno, Against Massacre: Humanitarian Interventions in the Ottoman Empire, 1815-1914 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012).

World War One, the Collapse of the Empire, and the Turkish War of Independence
Taner Akçam, From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide (London: Zed, 2004).
Taner Akçam, The Young Turks’ Crime Against Humanity: the Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012).
Mustafa Aksakal, The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Donald Bloxham, The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians (Oxford UP, 2007).
Bruce Clark, Twice a Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey (London: Granta, 2007).
Edward Erickson, Ottomans and Armenians: A Study in Counterinsurgency (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).
Fatma Müge Göçek, Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish Present and Collective Violence against the Armenians, 1789-2009 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015).
Şükrü Hanioğlu, Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013).
Ryan Gingeras, Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
Ronald Grigor Suny, Fatma Müge Göçek and Norman M. Naimark, A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).
Andrew Mango, Atatürk (London: John Murray, 1999).
Giles Milton, Paradise Lost, Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of Islam's City of Tolerance (London: Sceptre, 2009).
Eugene Rogan, The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the MIddle East, 1914-1920 (London: Allen Lane, 2015).
Ronald Grigor Suny, They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else: A History of the Armenian Genocide (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015).

Uğur Ümit Üngör, The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913-1950 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).

Art and Architecture
Geoffrey Goodwin, A History of Ottoman Architecture (New York: Thames & Hudson, 1987).
Shirine Hamadeh, The City's Pleasures: Istanbul in the Eighteenth Century (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008).
Çiğdem Kafesçioğlu, Constantinopolis / Istanbul: Cultural Encounter, Imperial Vision and the Construction of the Ottoman Capital (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009).
Gülrü Necipoğlu, The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire (London: Reaktion, 2005).
Gülrü Necipoğlu, Architecture, Ceremonial and Power: The Topkapı Palace in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992).
Gülrü Necipoğlu, “Süleyman the Magnificent and the Representation of Power in the Context of Ottoman-Hapsburg-Papal Rivalry,” Art Bulletin 71 (1989), 401-27.
Gülrü Necipoğlu-Kafadar, “The Süleymaniye Complex in Istanbul: An Interpretation,” Muqarnas 3 (1985), 92-117.
Julian Raby, “A Sultan of Paradox: Mehmed the Conqueror as a Patron of the Arts,” Oxford Art Journal 5 (1982), 3-8.
Lucienne Thys-Şenocak, Ottoman Women Builders: The Architectural Patronage of Hadice Turhan Sultan (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006).