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  • What were British cultural and political views of Italy once the Italian state had been created
  • How did British women memorialise the Risorgimento?
  • What traces can you find of British connections with the Risorgimento in Britain and in Italy?

Key Reading

Jessie White Mario, 'Misery, Discontent and Agitation in Italy', The Nation, 25 February 1886

Jessie White Mario, 'Mazzini's Early Letters', The Nation, 24 February 1898

Diana Moore, Revolutionary Domesticity in the Italian Risorgimento: Transnational Victorian Feminism, chapter 7

Christopher Duggan, ‘Giuseppe Mazzini in Britain and Italy : Divergent Legacies, 1837-1915’, in Giuseppe Mazzini and the globalisation of democratic nationalism 1830-1920, ed. by Christopher Alan Bayly and Eugenio F. Biagini, Proceedings of the British Academy, 152 (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2008).

Further Reading

Marcella Pellegrino Sutcliffe, ‘Marketing ‘Garibaldi panoramas’ in Britain (1860–1864)’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 18.2 (2013)

Marcella Pellegrino Sutcliffe, ‘Mazzini's Transnational Legacy amongst British Co-operators (c.1885-1949)’, Labour History Review, 77.3 (2012)

Lucy Turner Voakes, ‘The Risorgimento and English literary history, 1867-1911 : the liberal heroism of Trevelyan's Garibaldi’, Modern Italy, 15.4 (2010)

O. J. Wright, 'Conforming to the British Model? ‘Official’ British Perspectives on the New Italy' in Nick Carter (ed.), Britain, Ireland and the Italian Risorgimento

Garibaldi's Biscuits

Garibaldi's Biscuits by Ralph Steadman