Topic 2: The Impact of War
- How did people respond to the outbreak of war?
- What factors influenced the taking of sides?
- How do we explain the strength and character of neutralism in the early stages, and the rise of the Clubmen towards the end of the war?
- How great was the impact of war, and what forms did it take?
- Why did the war last so long, and why did Parliament win?
J. Morrill, Revolt in the Provinces (1999) essential; a much revised version of his earlier The Revolt of the Provinces. (On the strength of neutralism, the heavy burdens of war, and the hated new County Committees.)
J. Morrill (ed), Reactions to the English Civil War 1642-1649 (1982), esp. chaps 1-3,5, 8. )Note Hutton's essay on the royalist war effort for a comparison.)
J. Morrill (ed.), The Impact of the English Civil War (1991), esp. ch. 1,2,5. (Note Carlton on casualty rates.)
A. Wood, Riot, Rebellion and Popular Politics in Early Modern England (2002), ch.4.
I. Gentles, The New Model Army (1992), chap. 5 (The Army and the People).
C. Carlton, Going to the Wars. The experience of the British Civil Wars 1638-1651 (1992).
A. Everitt, The Local Community and the Great Rebellion (Historical Association pamphlet 1969 - argues that war had only a limited impact)
B. Manning, The English People and the English Revolution (esp. chap. 7, a contrasting account to Morrill's, arguing for allegiance along class lines; cf. Morrill's review in Historical Journal 20 (1977).
D. Underdown, Revel, Riot and Rebellion. Popular Politics and Culture in England, 1603-1660 (1985) chaps 6,7. (Lively attempt to link allegiance to social and cultural factors.)
D. Hirst, Authority and Conflict (1986) chapter 8.
A. Woolrych, Britain in Revolution, 1625-1660 (2002), chaps. 8-10.
M. J. Braddick, God's Fury, England's Fire (2008), esp. chap 7 ('Raising Forces') and chap 14 ('Winners and Losers: Costs and Benefits')Barbara Donagan, War in England 1642-1649 (2008), esp. chaps 11-13
R. Howell, 'The Structure of Urban Politics in the English Civil War', Albion 11 (1979) (reaction in the towns to the war).
M. Stoyle, From Deliverance to Destruction: Rebellion and civil war in an English City [Exeter] (1996)
D. Pennington and I. Roots, The Committee at Stafford (valuable account of a county committee's activities).
R. Ashton, The English Civil War, esp chapters 7 and 10, 'Centralism and Localism'.
I. Roy, 'England turned Germany? The aftermath of the Civil War in the European context', Trans. of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 28 (1978).
I. Roy, 'The English Civil War and English Society' War and Society (1976) (Arts periodicals).
You should look at one of the following histories of the war in particular counties:
J. Morrill, Cheshire: 1630-1660.
A. Everitt, The Community of Kent and the Great Rebellion.
D. Underdown, Somerset in the Civil War.
A. Fletcher, A County Community in Peace and War: Sussex 1600-1660 (1975)
A. Hughes, 'Militancy and Localism: Warwickshire Politics --- 1643-1647' T.R.H.S. (1981): see also her article in Midland History 7 (1982) and her book Politics, Society and Civil War in Warwickshire (1987).
W. Hunt, The Puritan Moment (Essex) chap. 11.
For Cromwell and the Army see:
C. Holmes, The Eastern Association in the English Civil War (important: military problems and innovations before the New Model).
A. Cotton, 'Cromwell and the Self-Denying Ordinance', History 62, 1977.
I. Gentles, The New Model Army (1992).
C.H. Firth, Cromwell's Army chaps 2-5, 8, 12-14.
J. Morrill, 'Mutiny and Discontent in English Provincial Armies 1645-47' P & P 56, 1972.
M. Kishlansky, The Rise of the New Model Army chaps 1-3.
For brief accounts of the Clubmen see:
J. Morrill, The Revolt of the Provinces.
D. Underwood, Somerset in the Civil War (use index).
S.R. Gardiner, The History of the Great Civil War 1642-49,vol ii, chap 32.
D. Underdown, 'Clubmen in the Civil War' Past & Present 85 (1979).