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2. Reform and Enforcement in the 1560s

Seminar Overview:

This seminar looks at developments in the first decade of Elizabeth’s reign, and will seek to establish whether we are better to see this as a time of effective implementation of a new political and religious regime, or as one of relative confusion and considerable resistance at various levels of society. The principal focus will be on the localities, and on the importance of understanding the different experiences of different parts of the country at this time. A key objective will be to understand the responses of Catholics or religious conservatives to the implementation of a Protestant Settlement. Once again, the reading and discussion will set the scene for the subsequent document work.

Questions for discussion:

- How effectively was the Religious Settlement imposed in the first decade of Elizabeth’s reign?

- What were English Catholics doing in the 1560s?


Seminar Reading:

Aston, Margaret, England’s Iconoclasts: Laws Against Images (Oxford, 1988), pp. 294-342

Bearman, Robert, ‘The Early Reformation Experience in a Warwickshire Market Town: Stratford-upon-Avon,1530-1580’, Midland History, 32 (2007)

Bullett, Maggie, ‘The Reception of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement in Three Yorkshire Parishes, 1559-72’, Northern History, 48 (2011)

Byford, Mark, ‘The Birth of a Protestant Town: the Process of Reformation in Tudor Colchester, 1530-1580’, in Patrick Collinson and John Craig, eds, The Reformation in English Towns 1500-1640 (Basingstoke, 1998)

Carlson, Eric, ‘Clerical Marriage and the English Reformation’, Journal of British Studies, 31 (1992).

Craig, John, Reformation, Politics and Polemics: The Growth of Protestantism in East Anglian Market Towns, 1500-1610 (Aldershot, 2001), chaps 3-5

*Duffy, Eamon, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England 1400-1580 (New Haven and London, 1992), chap. 17

Duffy, Eamon The Voices of Morebath: Reformation and Rebellion in an English Village (New Haven and London, 2001), chap. 7

Haigh, Christopher, Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire (Cambridge, 1975), chaps 14-16

*Haigh, Christopher, English Reformations: Religion, Politics, and Society under the Tudors (Oxford, 1993), chap. 14

Holmes, Peter, Resistance and compromise: the political thought of the Elizabethan Catholics (Cambridge, 1982), chap. 1

Houlbrooke, Ralph, Church Courts and the People during the English Reformation 1520-1570 (Oxford, 1979), 245-60

Houlbrooke, Ralph, ed., The Letter Book of John Parkhurst, Bishop of Norwich, Norfolk Record Society (1975)

*Jones, Norman, The Birth of the Elizabethan Age: England in the 1560s (Oxford, 1993), chaps 3, 5

Litzenberger, Caroline, ‘Richard Cheyney, Bishop of Gloucester, an Infidel in Religion?’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 25 (1994)

Litzenberger, Caroline, The English Reformation and the Laity: Gloucestershire, 1540-1580 (Cambridge, 1997, chap. 6)

Litzenberger, Caroline, ‘The Coming of Protestantism to Elizabethan Tewkesbury’, in Patrick Collinson and John Craig, eds, The Reformation in English Towns 1500-1640 (Basingstoke, 1998)

MacCulloch, Diarmaid, Suffolk and the Tudors: Politics and Religion in an English County 1500-1600 (Oxford, 1986), pp. 181-91.

Manning, Roger, Religion and Society in Elizabethan Sussex : a Study of the Enforcement of the Religious Settlement, 1558-1603 (Leicester, 1969), chap. 3

Marshall, Peter, The Face of the Pastoral Ministry in the East Riding, 1525-1595 (York, 1995)

*Marshall, Peter and John Morgan, ‘Clerical Conformity and the Elizabethan Settlement Revisited’, Historical Journal, 59 (2016)

O’Day, Rosemary, ‘Thomas Bentham: A Case Study in the Problems of the Early Elizabethan Episcopate’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 23 (1972)

O’Day, Rosemary, The English Clergy: The Emergence and Consolidation of a Profession 1558-1642 (Leicester, 1979)

Parish, Helen L., Clerical Marriage and the English Reformation (Aldershot, 2000), chap. 8 [PM]

*Smith, Frederick, ‘The Origins of Recusancy in Elizabethan England Reconsidered’, Historical Journal, 59 (2016)

Usher, Brett, ‘New Wine into Old Bottles: The Doctrine and Structure of the Elizabethan Church’, in Susan Doran and Norman Jones, eds., The Elizabethan World (London, 2011)

Usher, Brett, William Cecil and Episcopacy, 1559-1577 (Aldershot, 2003)

Wenig, Scott, ‘The Reformation in the Diocese of Ely during the Episcopate of Richard Cox, 1559-77’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 33 (2002)

Wooding, Lucy, Rethinking Catholicism in Reformation England (Oxford, 200), chaps 6-7



‘Bishop of Worcester’s Letter to the Privy Council, 1564’, Mary Bateson, ed., ‘A Collection of Original Letters from the Bishops to the Privy Council, 1564’, in Camden Miscellany, Vol. 9 (Camden Society, ns, 53, London, 1895), pp. 1-8

‘Extract from Churchwardens’ Accounts of St Andrew Hubbard’, EHD, pp. 159-61

‘Bishop Bentham’s Injunctions for Coventry and Lichfield Diocese, 1565’, W. H. Frere and W. P. M. Kennedy, eds, Visitation Articles and Injunctions of the Period of the Reformation, 3 vols, (London, 1910) , vol. 3, pp. 165-70

‘Extracts from York Visitation of 1567’, J. S. Purvis, ed., Tudor Parish Documents of the Diocese of York (Cambridge, 1948), pp. 20-34

‘Petition of English Catholics to the Council of Trent, 1562, and note of Spanish Ambassador’, Ginevra Crosignani, Thomas M. McCoog and Michael Questier, eds., Recusancy and Conformity in Early Modern England (Toronto, 2010), pp.3-8