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Seminar questions:

How can we conceptualize resistance in the Holocaust?

What made kashariot so successful?

Is resistance still valid if it fails?

Core readings:

Hermann Langbein, People in Auschwitz (Chapel Hill: University of North Caroline Press & USHMM, 2003): ch. Resistance (240-272).

Lenore Weitzman, Women of Courage: The Kashariyot (Couriers) in the Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust, in Lessons and Legacies VI, ed. Jeffry Diefendorf (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1996): 112-154.

Extended readings:

Gad Beck, An underground life : memoirs of a gay Jew in Nazi Berlin (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1999).

Wolf Gruner, "The Germans should expel the Foreigner Hitler”. Open Protest and Other Forms of Jewish Defiance in Nazi Germany," Yad Vashem Studies, Vol. 39 (2011).

Israel Gutman, Resistance : the Warsaw Ghetto uprising (Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 1994).

Samuel Kassow, Who will write our history? : rediscovering a hidden archive from the Warsaw Ghetto (New York: Vintage Books, 2009).

Detlev Peukert, Inside Nazi Germany : conformity, opposition and racism in everyday life (Harmondsworth : Penguin, 1989) especially here:

Renee Poznanski, Jews in France during World War II (Hanover, N.H. : University Press of New England, 2001).

Nechama Tec, Defiance : the Bielski partisans (Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1993).

Anika Walke, Pioneers and partisans : an oral history of Nazi genocide in Belorussia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).