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  • J. M. Beattie, ‘Scales of Justice: Defence Counsel and the English Criminal Trial in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, Law and History Review, 9 (1991), pp. 221–67.
  • David J. A. Cairns, Advocacy and the making of the adversarial criminal trial, 1800-1865
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  • J. H. Langbein, ‘The Prosecutorial Origins of Defence Counsel in the Eighteenth Century: The Appearance of Solicitors’, Cambridge Law Journal, 58 (1999), pp. 314–365.
  • J. H. Langbein, The Origins of Adversary Criminal Trial
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  • Allyson May, The Bar and the Old Bailey, 1750-1850
  • Symposium, ‘The Origins of the Adversary Criminal Trial’, Journal of Legal History, 28:1 (2005), pp. 63–89