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Key Texts

  • Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, chapters 3 and 4

Seminar Reading

  • Lynn Abrams, 'Interpersonal violence and shifting codes of manhood', Scottish Historical Review, 2013
  • Susan Broomhall, Governing Masculinities, ch 12
  • Margaret Arnot and Cornelie Usborne (eds), Gender and Crime in Modern Europe
  • J. Beattie, ‘The Criminality of Women in the Eighteenth Century’, Journal of Social History, 8 (1975), pp. 80-116
  • John Carter Wood, Violence and Crime in Nineteenth-Century England
  • P. Cox, Gender, Justice and Welfare: Bad Girls in Britain, 1900-1950
  • Andrew Davies, ‘These Viragoes are No Less Cruel than the Lads: Young Women, Gangs and Violence in Late Victorian Manchester and Salford’, British Journal of Criminology, 39 (1999)
  • S. D’Cruze, Everyday Violence in Britain: Gender and Class
  • S. D’Cruze and R. Anupama, ‘Violence and the Vulnerabilities of Gender’, Gender and History, 16 (2004), pp. 495-512
  • M. Feeley and D. Little, ‘The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912’, Law and Society Review, 25 (1991), pp. 719
  • Ginger Frost, ‘She is but a Woman: Kitty Biron and the English Edwardian Criminal Justice System’, Gender and History, 16 (2004), pp. 538-60
  • Tim Hitchcock and Michele Cohen (eds), English Masculinities (especially essays by Foyster and Shoemaker)
  • Peter King, ‘Gender, Crime and Justice in Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth-Century England’, in M. Arnot and C. Usborne, eds. Gender and Crime in Modern Europe (London, UCL Press, 1999), pp. 44-74.
  • Peter King, ‘Female Offenders, Work and Lifecycle Change in Late Eighteenth Century London’, Continuity and Change, 11 (1996), pp. 61-90.
  • Anne Logan, Feminism and Criminal Justice
  • Pauline Prior, Madness and murder : gender, crime and mental disorder in nineteenth-century Ireland
  • Martin Wiener, Men of Blood: Violence, Manliness and Criminal Justice in Victorian England
  • Lucia Zedner, Women, Crime and Custody in Victorian England


  • Are there discernible trends in gender and class regarding crime statistics?
  • Are men more predisposed to violent crime?
  • Are the middle-class and working-class treated differently when accused of similar crimes?
  • Why did women turn to crime?
  • What is the connection between violence and manliness in the Victorian city?
  • How widespread was domestic violence. And were there class differences?
  • What was women's experience of the courts and the criminal justice system?