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Tutor: Rosie Doyle

Law has set parameters for what men and women can do, gender norms have shaped how laws have been conceived and enforced. In this seminar, we will examine the influence of the Age of Revolutions (c1750-c1850) when both law and gender were both being dramatically redefined. Did the Revolutionary 'rule of law' empower or disempower along gendered lines? Did law itself set gendered limits or did culture impose gender limits despite the law's new content?

Seminar questions

Did French Revolutionaries try to bring about gender equality? If so, on what grounds?

Have gendered legal constraints been only disempowering (end of story) or have they led, in some cases, to creativity in gender/sexual practices?

How has the legacy of legal universalism shaped gender practices in the modern era? If so, how? Does this differ from place to place?

How did the Age of Revolutions alter gender norms for men, if at all?

Core reading

Donna Guy, Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires: prostitution, family and nation in Argentina (1991), pp 37-104 [2. Dangerous Women: Legalized Prostituion and 3. Venereal Disease, Public Health and Criminality]. E-Book available at library.

Carla Hesse, The Other Enlightenment: How French Women Became Modern (2001)

Silvia Marina Arrom, The Women of Mexico City 1790-1857 (1985), pp 53-97 [2. Legal Status].- E-Book available at library.

Joan Scott, Only Paradoxes to Offer: French Feminists and the Rights of Man (1997), pp 1-18 [1. Re-reading The History of Feminism].E-Book available at library.

Further reading

For a recent overview of the literature on gender and sexuality in the French Revolution, see McPhee, A Companion to the French Revolution (2013), 'Gender, Sexuality, and Political Culture'

On Latin America from The Age of Revolutions: Silvia Marina Arrom, Voulunteering for a cause: gender faith and charity in Mexico from the Reform to the Revolution (2016)

Cristián Berco, “Silencing the Unmentionable: Non-Reproductive Sex and the Creation of a Civilized Argentina,” The Americas 53:3 (2002): 419–41

Susan K. Besse, “Crimes of Passion: The Campaign Against Wife-Killing in Brazil, 1910–1940,” Journal of Social History 22:4 (1989): 653–66

Katherine Bliss, “The Science of Redemption: Syphilis, Sexual Promiscuity, and Reformism in Revolutionary Mexico City,” Hispanic American Historical Review 79:1 (1999): 1–40

Katherine Elaine Bliss, Compromised Positions: Prostitution, Public Health, and Gender Politics in Revolutionary Mexico City (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2002)

Robert M. Buffington and Pablo Piccato, “Tales of Two Women: The Narrative Construct of Porfirian Reality,” The Americas 55:3 (1999): 391–424

Sarah C. Chambers, From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa Peru, 1780–1854 (University Park: Penn State University Press, 1999)

Carmen Diana Deere and Magdalena León de Leal, Empowering Women: Land and Property Rights in Latin America (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 2001)

Arlene J. Díaz, Female Citizens, Patriarchs, and the Law in Venezuela, 1786–1904 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004).

William E. French and Katherine Elaine Bliss, eds., Gender, Sexuality, and Power in Latin America since Independence (Lanham, Md.: Rowan & Littlefield, 2007).

William E. French, “Prostitutes and Guardian Angels: Women, Work and Family in Porfirian Mexico,” Hispanic American Historical Review 72:4 (1992): 529–53

Eileen Findlay, Imposing Decency: The Politics of Sexuality and Race in Puerto Rico, 1870–1920 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2000)

Heather Fowler Salamini and Mary Kay Vaughan, Women of the Mexican Countryside, 1850–1990: Creating Spaces, Shaping Transition (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994)

Donna J. Guy, “Women, Peonage and Industrialization Argentina, 1810–1914,” Latin American Research Review 16:3 (1981): 65–89

Donna J. Guy, “Lower-Class Families, Women and the Law in Nineteenth-Century Argentina,” Journal of Family History 10:3 (1985): 318–31

Donna J. Guy, “Stigma, Pleasures, and Dutiful Daughters,” Journal of Women's History 10:3 (1998): 180–91

Donna J. Guy, “Parents Before the Tribunals: The Legal Construction of Patriarchy in Argentina,” in Maxine Molyneux and Elizabeth Dore, eds., The Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin America (Durham, N.C. and London: Duke University Press, 2000).

Donna J. Guy, Women Build the Welfare State: performing charity and creating rights in Argentina 1880-1955 (2009).

June Edith Hahner, Emancipating the Female Sex: The Struggle for Women's Rights in Brazil, 1850–1940 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1990)

Elizabeth Quay Hutchison, Labors Appropriate to their Sex: Gender, Labor, and Politics in Urban Chile, 1900–1930 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001)

Christine Hunefeldt, Liberalism in the Bedroom: Quarreling Spouses in Nineteenth-Century Lima (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2000)

Elizabeth Anne Kuznesof, “Gender Ideology, Race, and Female-Headed Households in Urban Mexico, 1750–1850,” in Victor M. Uribe, ed., State and Society in Spanish America during the Age of Revolution (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2001)

Asunción Lavrin, Women, Feminism, and Social Change in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, 1890–1940 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995)

Sonya Lipsett-Rivera, “The Intersection of Rape and Marriage in Late-Colonial and Early-National Mexico,” Colonial Latin American Historical Review 6:4 (1997): 559–90.

Peter McKee Irwin, Edward J. McCaughan, and Michelle Rossio Nasser, eds., The Famous 41: Sexuality and Social Control in Mexico, 1901 (New York: Palgrave, 2003).

Stephanie Mitchell and Patience A, Schell (eds.) The Women's Revolution in Mexico, 1910-1953 (2007).

Jocelyn Olcott, Revolutionary Women in Postrevolutionary Mexico (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2005

Susie S. Porter, Working Women in Mexico City; Public Discourses and Material Conditions, 1879–1931 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2003).

Sara A. Radcliffe and Sallie Westwood (eds.), "Viva": Women and Popular Protest in Latin America (1993).

Kristen Ruggiero, Modernity in the Flesh: Medicine, Law, and Society in Turn of the Century Argentina (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003).

Patience A. Schell, Church and State Education in Revolutionary Mexico (2003).

Kathryn A. Sloan, Runaway Daughters: Seduction, Elopement, and Honor in Nineteenth-Century Mexico (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2008).

Lynn Stephen, Women and Social Movements in Latin America: Power from Below (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997)

K. Lynn Stoner, From the House to the Streets: The Cuban Woman's Movement for Legal Reform, 1898–1940 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1991).

On the French Revolution: Women, Gender and the Salons

J. Landes, Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution (1988)

M. Steinbrugge, The Moral Sex: Women’s Nature in the French Enlightenment (1995)

B. Craveri, Madame du Deffand and her World (1994)

B. Craveri, The Age of Conversation (2005)

D. Goodman, The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment (1994)

K. Loiselle, Brotherly Love: Freemasonry and Male Friendship in Enlightenment France (2014)

D. Z. Davidson, France after Revolution: Urban Life, Gender, and the New Social Order (2007)

A. Lilti, The World of the Salons: Sociability and Worldliness in Eighteenth-century France (2015)

S. D. Kale, ‘Women, Salons and the State in the Aftermath of the French Revolution’, Journal of Women’s History 13: 4 (2002), pp. 54-80. E.C. Goldsmith & D. Goodman (eds), Going Public: Women and Publishing in Early Modern France (1995)

L. Schiebeinger, The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science (1989)

N.R. Gelbart, Feminist and Opposition Journalism in Old Régime France: The ‘Journal des Dames’ (1987) Women & Revolutionary Politics

Suzanne Desan, ‘Constitutional Amazons: Jacobin Women’s Clubs in the French Revolution’ in B. T. Ragan Jr. and E. A. Williams (eds.), Re-Creating Authority in Revolutionary France (1992), pp. 11-35.

Gregory Brown, "The Self-fashioning of Olympes de Gouges, 1784-1789', Eighteenth-Century Studies, vol. 34, n. 3 (2001), pp. 383-401.

D. Outram, The Body and the French Revolution (1989) D.G. Levy et al. (eds), Women in Revolutionary Paris, 1789-95 (1979)

S.E. Melzer & L. Rabine (eds), Rebel Daughters: Women and the French Revolution (1992)

M. Yalom, Blood Sisters: The French Revolution in Women’s Memory (1995)

C.R. Montfort, Literate Women and the French Revolution of 1789 (1994)

D. Godineau, The Women of Paris and their French Revolution (1998) J. Landes, Women and Politics in the Age of the French Revolution (1988) O. Hufton, Women and the Limits of Citizenship in the French Revolution (1992) O. Hufton, ‘Women in Revolution, 1789-96’, Past and Present, 53 (1996) C. Hesse, The Other Enlightenment: How French Women became Modern (2001)

S. Desan, Reclaiming the Sacred: Lay Religion and Popular Politics in Revolutionary France (1990) S. Desan, The Family on Trial in Revolutionary France (2004) W. Sewell, ‘Le citoyen/la citoyenne: activity, passivity and the revolutionary concept of citizenship’, French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture, vol. 3

J.W. Scott, Only Paradoxes to Offer: French Feminists and the Rights of Man (1996) G.S. Brown, ‘The self-fashionings of Olympe de Gouges’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 34 (2001)

L.H. Walker, ‘Sweet and consoling virtue: the memoirs of Madame Roland’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 34 (2001) N. Mirzoeff, ‘Revolution, representation, equality: gender, genre and emulation in the Académie royale de peinture et sculpture, 1785-93’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 31 (1997-8)

J.E. Mitchell, ‘Picturing sisters: 1790 portraits by J.L. David’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 31 (1997-8) S. Malsan, ‘Susannah at her bath: surveillance and Revolutionary drama’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 34 (2001) S.P. Conner, ‘Politics, prostitution and the pox in Revolutionary Paris’, Journal of Social History, 22 (1989)

L. di Caprio, ‘Women workers, state-sponsored work and the right to subsistence during the French Revolution’, Journal of Modern History, 71 (1999)

W.C. Nielsen, ‘Staging Rousseau's Republic: French revolutionary festivals and Olympe de Gouge’, in Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation, 43 (2002)

S. Dalton, ‘Gender and the Shifting Ground of Revolutionary Politics: The Case of Madame Roland’, Canadian Journal of History, 36 (2001)

L. Baker ‘Survival Strategies of Widows in Dijon during the French Revolution’, Women’s Studies 31 (2002).

D. Godineau, The Women of Paris and their French Revolution (1998). O. Hufton, Women and the Limits of Citizenship in the French Revolution (1992).

S. E. Melzer and L. W. Rabine (eds.), Rebel Daughters: Women and the French Revolution (1992)

The Family

S. Desan, The Family on Trial in Revolutionary France (2006) S. Desan and J. Merrick, Family, Gender, and Law in Early Modern France (2012)

S. Desan, ‘The French Revolution and the Family’ in McPhee (ed.), A Companion to the French Revolution (2013), 470-485

J. Heuer, The Family and the Nation: Gender and Citizenship in Revolutionary France, 1789-1830 (2007)

L. Hunt, The Family Romance and the French Revolution (1992) James Traer, Marriage and the Family in the Eighteenth-Century France (Ithaca, N.Y., 1980)

Roderick Philipps, Family Breakdown in Late Eighteenth-Century France: Divorces in Rouen, 1792-1803 (Oxford, 1980)

Margaret Darrow, Revolution in the House: Family, Class, and Inheritance in Southern France, 1775-1825 (Princeton, N.J., 1989)

Louise Tilly, "Women's History and Family History: Fruitful Collaboration or Missed Connection?', Journal of Family History, 12 (1987), pp. 303-15.

Lynn Hunt, The family Romance of the French Revolution (Berkeley, 1992)

Elisabeth Claverie and Pierre Lamaison, L'impossible mariage: violence et parente en Gevaudan (Paris, 1982)

Isser Woloch, The New Regime: Transformations of the French Civic Order, 1789-1820s (New York, 1994), pp. 307-20.