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Religion

Tutor: Rosie Doyle

Religious institutions typically attempt to impose control over sexuality and, particularly historically, to impose patriarchal norms on society. Faiths (and the interpretations of their texts and traditions) change over time, but all are historically concerned with policing the boundaries of gender and sexuality. In this seminar, we will look at a particular moment in early modern history, the Protestant and Catholic Reformations and the Catholic encounter with the New World, to see how this control was exerted and altered. What changes to expected roles were there before and after 1500? Were there significant differences between how Protestant and Catholic communities policed gender and sexuality? How did Spanish Catholic notions of gender differ from those found in the New World? What were the concerns regarding sexuality of Spanish people arriving in The New World?

Seminar questions:

Did the role of women within marriage and the family fundamentally change after 1500?

Some historians have argued that the Protestant Reformation marked an improvement for women - does the evidence support this interpretation?

Why is the issue of clerical sexuality so important for sixteenth-century theologians?

Is there significant difference in the way that Protestants and Catholics deal with what they considered 'deviant' sexuality? Why?

Why is it important for religious institutions to police the boundaries of gender and sexuality?

Core readings:

Ramón A. Gutiérrez, “A Gendered History of the Conquest of America: A View from New Mexico,” in Richard C. Trexler (ed.), Gender Rhetorics, (1994), 47–63.

Merry Wiesner-Hanks, Christianity and Sexuality in the Early Modern World: Regulating Desire, Reforming Practice (London, 2000), chapter 1 ('Christianity to 1500')

Mary Laven, 'Sex and Celibacy in Early Modern Venice,' Historical Journal 44 (2001), 865-88.

Laura A. Lewis."From Sodomy to Superstition: The Active Pathic and Bodily Transgressions in New Spain" Ethnohistory 54

Thomas Fudge, 'Incest and Lust in Luther's Marriage: Theology and Morality in Reformation Polemics,' Sixteenth Century Journal 34 (2003), 319-345.

Jeffrey Watt, 'Women and the Consistory in Calvin's Geneva,' Sixteenth Century Journal 24 (1993), 429-39.

William Monter, 'Sodomy and Heresy in Early Modern Switzerland,' Journal of Homosexuality 6 (1981), 41-55.

Geoffrey Spurling, “Under Investigation for the Abominable Sin: Damián de Morales Stands Accused of Attempting to Seduce Antón de Tierra de Congo,” in Colonial Lives: Documents on Latin American History, 1550–1850, ed. Richard Boyer and Geoffrey Spurling (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 112–29.

Further reading:

For a general overview, see the rest of Merry Wiesner-Hanks, Christianity and Sexuality in the Early Modern World: Regulating Desire, Reforming Practice (London, 2000). Each chapter has excellent lists for further reading.

For more specific topics, see:

P. Renée Baernstein, A Convent Tale: A Century of Sisterhood in Spanish Milan (New York, 2002)

John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century (Chicago, 1980)

Judith Brown, Immodest Acts: The Life of a Lesbian Nun in Renaissance Italy (Oxford, 1986)

Sylvia Monica Brown, Women, Gender, and Radical Religion in Early Modern Europe (Leiden 2007)

Lynda Coon et al (eds), That Gentle Strength: Historical Perspectives on Women in Christianity (Charlottesville, VA, 1990)

Natalie Zemon Davis, Women on the Margins (Cambridge, MA, 1995) (particularly chapters 1 and 2)

Francis Dolan, Whores of Babylon: Catholicism, Gender and Seventeenth-Century Print Culture (South Bend, IN, 2005)

Catalina de Erauso, Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World, trans. Gabriel and Michele Stepto (Boston, 1996)

Joanne Ferraro, Marriage Wars in Late Renaissance Venice (Oxford, 2001)

Stephen Haliczer, Sexuality in the Confessional: A Sacrament Profaned (Oxford, 1996)

Scott Hendrix and Susan Karant-Nunn (eds), Masculinity in the Reformation Era (Kirksville, MO, 2008)

Martin Ingram, Church Courts, Sex, and Marriage in England 1570-1640 (Cambridge, 1987)

Susan Karant-Nunn and Merry Wiesner Hanks (eds and trans.), Luther on Women: A Sourcebook (Cambridge, 2003)

Elizabeth Lehfeldt, Women and Religion in Golden-Age Spain: The Permeable Cloister (Burlington, VT, 2006)

Ann Loades (ed), Feminist Theology: A Reader (London, 1990)

W. Merle Longwood and Mark Muesse (eds), Redeeming Men: Religion and Masculinities (Louisville, KY, 1996)

Marilyn Migiel and Juliana Schiesari (eds), Gender and the Italian Renaissance (Ithaca, NY, 1991)

Stephen Ozment, When Fathers Ruled: Family Life in Reformation Europe (Cambridge, MA, 1983)

Mary Elizabeth Perry, The Handless Maiden: Moriscos and the Politics of Religion in Early Modern Spain (Princeton, 2006)

Ute Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven: Women, Sexuality, and the Catholic Church (New York, 1990)

Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and Male Culture in Renaissance Florence (Oxford, 1996)

Lyndal Roper, Oedipus and the Devil: Witchcraft, Religion, and Sexuality in Early Modern Europe (London, 1994)

Lyndal Roper, Witch Craze: Terror and Fantasy in Baroque Germany (New Haven, 2004)

Anne Schutte, Aspiring Saints: Pretense of Holiness, Inquisition, and Gender in the Republic of Venice, 1618-1750 (Baltimore, 2003)

Kimberly Schmidt, Diane Zimmerman Umble, and Steven Reschly (eds), Strangers at Home: Amish and Mennonite Women in History (Baltimore, 2002)

H.J. Selderhuis, Marriage and Divorce in the Thought of Martin Bucer (Kirksville, MO, 1998)

Philip M Soergel (ed), Sexuality and Culture in Medieval and Renaissance Europe (New York, 2005)

Lawrence Stone, Broken Lives: Separation and Divorce in England 1660-1857 (New York, 1993)

Tessa Storey, Carnal Commerce in Counter-Reformation Rome (Cambridge, 2008)

Nicholas Terpstra, Lost Girls: Sex and Death in Renaissance Florence (Baltimore, 2010)

John Lee Thompson, John Calvin and the Daughters of Sarah: Women in Regular and Exceptional Roles in the Exegesis of Calvin, His Predecessors, and His Contemporaries (Geneva, 1992)

Sherry Velasco, The Lieutenant Nun: Transgenderism, Lesbian Desire, and Catalina de Erauso (Austin, TX, 2001)

Deborah Willis, Malevolent Nurture: Witch-Hunting and Maternal Power in Early Modern England (Ithaca, NY, 1995)

John Witte and Robert Kingdon, Sex, Marriage, and Family Life in John Calvin's Geneva: Courtship, Engagement, and Marriage (Grand Rapids, MI, 2005)

Lawrence Wolff, Paolina's Innocence: Child Abuse in Casanova's Venice (Stanford, 2012)

… on Latin America:

Ana Mariella Bacigalupo, “The Struggle for Mapuche Shamans' Masculinity: Colonial Politics of Gender, Sexuality, and Power in Southern Chile,” Ethnohistory 51:3 (2004): 489–533.

Ann S. Blum, “Public Welfare and Child Circulation in Mexico City, 1877–1925,” Journal of Family History 23:3 (1998), 240–72

Joan Cameron Bristol, Christians, Blasphemers, and Witches: Afro-Mexican Ritual Practice in the Seventeenth Century (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007)

Steve Bourget, Sex Death and Sacrifice in Moche Religion and Visual Culture (2006), E-Book at library.

Richard Boyer, Lives of the Bigamists: Marriage, Family, and Community in Colonial Mexico (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995)

Louise M. Burkhart, The Slippery Earth: Nahua-Christian Moral Dialogue in Sixteenth-Century Mexico (1989).

Fernando Cervantes, The Devil in the New World: The Impact of Diabolism in New Spain (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994)

John Chuchiak, “Secrets behind the Screen: Solicitantes in the Colonial Diocese of Yucatan and the Yucatec Maya, 1570–1785,” in Religion in New Spain, ed. Susan Schroeder and Stafford Poole (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007), 83–109.

John Chuchiak, “The Sins of the Fathers: Franciscan Friars, Parish Priests, and the Sexual Conquest of the Yucatec Maya,” Ethnohistory 54:1 (2007): 69–127.

Susan M. Deeds, “Double Jeopardy: Indian Women in Jesuit Missions of Nueva Vizcaya,” in Indian Women of Early Mexico, ed. Susan Schroeder, Stephanie Wood, and Robert Haskett (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997)

Serge Gruzinski, “The Ashes of Desire: Homosexuality in Mid-Seventeenth- Century New Spain,” in Infamous Desire: Male Homosexuality in Colonial Latin America, ed. Pete Sigal (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003)

Ramón A. Gutiérrez, “A Gendered History of the Conquest of America: A View from New Mexico,” in Richard C. Trexler (ed.), Gender Rhetorics, (1994), 47–63.

Regina Harrison, “The Theology of Concupiscence: Spanish-Quechua Confessional Manuals in the Andes,” in Coded Encounters: Writing, Gender and Ethnicity in Colonial Latin America, ed. Francisco Javier Cevallos-Candau, Jeffrey A. Cole, Nina M. Scott, and Nicomedes Suárez-Araúz (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994), 135–50.

Michael J. Horswell, Decolonizing the Sodomite: Queer Tropes of Sexuality in Colonial Andean Culture (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005).

Asunción Lavrin, ed., Sexuality and Marriage in Colonial Latin America (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989)

Zeb Tortorici, “Masturbation, Salvation, and Desire: Connecting Sexuality and Religiosity in Colonial Mexico,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 16:3 (2007): 355–72.

Laura A. Lewis, Hall of Mirrors: Power, Witchcraft and Caste in Colonial Mexico (2003)

Laura A. Lewis."From Sodomy to Superstition: The Active Pathic and Bodily Transgressions in New Spain" Ethnohistory 54:1 (2007): 129-157.

Rosalva Loreto López, “The Devil, Women and the Body in Seventeenth-Century Puebla Convents,” The Americas 5:2 (2002): 183–99.

Sylvia Marcos, “Indigenous Eroticism and Colonial Morality in Mexico: The Confession Manuals of New Spain,” Numen 39:2 (1992): 157–74.

Martin Nesvig, “The Complicated Terrain of Latin American Homosexuality,” Hispanic American Historical Review 81:3–4 (2001): 689–729

Colin A. Palmer, “Religion and Magic in Mexican Slave Society,” in Race and Slavery in the Western Hemisphere: Quantitative Studies, ed. Stanley L. Engerman and Eugene D. Genovese (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975), 311–28.

Ana María Presta, “Portraits of Four Women: Traditional Female Roles and Transgressions in Colonial Elite Families in Charcas, 1550–1600,” Colonial Latin American Review 9:2 (2000): 237–62.

Peter Sigal “Gendered Power, the Hybrid Self, and Homosexual Desire in Late Colonial Yucatan,” in Infamous Desire, 102–32;

Sigal, From Moon Goddesses to Virgins: The Colonization of Yucatecan Maya Sexual Desire (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000)

Peter Sigal “The Cuiloni, the Patlache, and the Abominable Sin: Homosexualities in Early Colonial Nahua Society,” Hispanic American Historical Review 85:4 (2005): 555–93

Peter Sigal “Queer Nahuatl: Sahagún's Faggots and Sodomites, Lesbians and Hermaphrodites,” Ethnohistory 54:1 (2007): 9–34.

Geoffrey Spurling, “Under Investigation for the Abominable Sin: Damián de Morales Stands Accused of Attempting to Seduce Antón de Tierra de Congo,” in Colonial Lives: Documents on Latin American History, 1550–1850, ed. Richard Boyer and Geoffrey Spurling (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 112–29.