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Tutor: Dr Anna Hájková

How can we make sense of sexual violence? Our society codes sexual assault among the most traumatic experience. In this session, we will discuss key interpretations of sexual violence, and look how it is linked to power hierarchies and domination. We will also discuss in what ways does society apply sexual violence in imagigining genocidal horrors.

Core texts:

Atina Grossmann, Jews, Germans, and Allies: Close encounters in occupied Germany (Princeton, 2007), ch. 2 (Gendered Defeat)

Christine Helliwell, '"It's Only a Penis": Rape, Feminism, and Difference,' Signs, 25, 3 (Spring, 2000), pp. 789-816.

Regina Mühlhäuser, "Understanding Sexual Violence during the Holocaust: A Reconsideration of Research and Sources," German History, June 2020.


Susan Browmiller, Against our will: Men, women and rape (there are various editions)

Stalags. 2007. Directed by Ari Libsker. Tel Aviv: Heymann Brothers Films. (movie)

Bartov, Omer.. “Kitsch and Sadism in Ka-Tzetnik’s Other Planet: Israeli Youth Imagine the Holocaust,” Jewish Social Studies 3,2 (1997), pp. 42–76.

Carroll, Stuart, ed., Cultures of Violence: Interpersonal Violence in Historical Perspective (Basingstoke, 2007)

Spierenburg, Pieter, ed., Men and Violence: Gender, Honor and Rituals in Modern Europe and America (Columbus OH, 1998)

Elizabeth Heineman, ed., Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones: From the Ancient World to the Era of Human Rights (Phildalelphia, 2013).

Dagmar Herzog, ed., Brutality and desire: War and sexuality in Europe's twentieth century (New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

Regina Mühlhäuser, “The Historicity of Denial: Sexual Violence against Jewish Women during the War of Annihilation, 1941–1945,” in Lessons and Legacies XI: Expanding Perspectives on the Holocaust in a Changing World, ed. by Hilary Earl and Karl Schleunes (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2014), pp. 31-58.

Regina Mühlhäuser, Sex and the Nazi Soldier: Violent, Commercial and Consensual Encounters during the War in the Soviet Union, 1941-1945 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020).

Atina Grossmann, Jews, Germans, and Allies: Close encounters in occupied Germany (Princeton, 2007), ch. 2 (Gendered Defeat)