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Voltaire, Candide

The edition we will be using is the following:

  • Voltaire, Candide
  • Editeur : Larousse (13 juin 2007)
  • Collection : Petits Classiques
  • Langue : Français
  • ISBN-10: 2035839068
  • ISBN-13: 978-2035839060

You will also need to read the article ‘Teaching Candide-A Debate’, by Theodore E. D. Braun, Felicia Sturzer, and Martine Darmon Meyer, The French Review, Vol. 61, No. 4 (March 1988), pp. 569-577 Stable URL:  

An example of how critical approaches can be used in reading the text:

  • René Pomeau, 'Candide entre Marx et Freud', SVEC 89 (1972), p.1305-23. This is now available on the Strategies electronic extracts page.
  • Ingvild Hagen Kjørholt, 'Cosmopolitans, Slaves, and the Global Market in Voltaire’s Candide, ou l’optimisme' Eighteenth-Century Fiction, Volume 25, Number 1 /2012 which can be accessed electronically through the Library catalogue.

Useful secondary material on Candide

Haydn Mason (ed) , Voltaire: Candide (Bristol Classical texts edn)

Ira Wade, Voltaire and Candide (1959)

David Williams, Voltaire: Candide (Grant & Cutler study guide)

C. J. Betts, 'On the Beginning and End of Candide', The Modern Language Review, vol 80 (1985), 283 - 292. Available through JSTOR: Stable URL:

Useful secondary material on Voltaire

Roger Pearson, Voltaire Almighty: a life in pursuit of freedom (2005)

Ira Wade, The Intellectual Development of Voltaire (1969)

Useful secondary material on the Enlightenment

Roy Porter, The Enlightenment (1990)

John Sweetman, The Enlightenment and the age of Revolution 1700-1850 (1998)

Online material

A networked edition of Candide with comments on the New York Library site :

Study guide for those taking the French bac:

Illustrations of the text from the 18th century onwards can be found here in an online exhibition of Candide at the University of Trier

A mind map of Candide can be found here

Listen to the In Our Time discussion of Candide: an approachable way to discover a variety of academic views on the text: