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Research areas

My research is focused on mass spectrometry based metabolomics and proteomics, their applications in areas including natural product drug discovery, drug metabolism, disease biomarker discovery and environmental analysis.

1. Bioactive natural product discovery from microorganism and plant, using a combination of liquid chromatography, high resolution high accuracy MS, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques, we carry out dereplication, identification, purification and structure elucidation of novel bioactive natural products.

2. Drug mechanism of action and metabolism analysis (ADME, pharmacokinetics), using stable isotope labelled compounds to investigate drug metabolism in both in vitro and in vivo systems, metabolites are identified through high resolution LC-MS/MS profiling, both the original drug molecules and their metabolites can be quantified in MRM mode on triple quadrupole mass spectrometer pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

3. Disease biomarker discovery and validation (for therapeutic and pharmacodynamics study) using comparative metabolomic and proteomic approach.

4. Environmental analysis of both organic and inorganic pollutants (agrochemicals such as pesticide, herbicides, veterinary antimicrobials, animal growth hormones, their leakage into the environment; human medicine and breakdown products entering the environment from waste water treatment plant) as well as environment originated antimicrobial resistance.

Recent Publications (H-index 37), total citation>4,900:


  1. M. Manik, Y. Shi, S. Li, M. Zaydman, N. Damaraju, V. Masic, T. Mosaiab, S. Hancock, E. Vasquez, L. Hartley-Tassell, N. Maruta, B. Lim, W. Gu, H. Burdett, M. Lansdberg, M. Schembri, N. Kargios, I. Prokes, L. Song, M. Grant, A. DiAntonio, J. Nanson, J. Milbrandt, T. Ve and B. Kobe Chemical structures of cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) isomers and the molecular basis of their production and signalling, Sciences, 2022, DOI: 10.1126/science.adc8969
  2. F. Wang, I. Prokes, L. Song, H. Shi, P. Sadler, Reactions of cisplatin and oxaliplatin with penicillin G: implications for drug inactivation and biological activity, J. Biol Inorg. Chem., 2022, in press
  3. N. Ashraf, S. Zafar, R. Makitrynskyy, A. Bechthold, D. Spiteller, L. Song, M. Anwar, A. Luzhetskyy, A. Khan, K. Akhtar, S. Khaliq, Revealing genome-based biosynthetic potential of streptomyces sp. BR123 isolated from sunflower rhizophere with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, Antibiotics, 2022, 11, 1057 (Doi:10.3390/antibiotics11081057)
  4. F. Chen, I. Romero-Canelón, A. Habtemariam, J. Song, S. Banerjee, G. Clarkson, L. Song, I. Prokes and P. Sadler, Effect of cysteine thiols on the catalytic and anticancer activity of Ru (II) sulfonyl-ethylenediamine complexes, Dalton Transactions, 2022, DOI: 10.1039/D1DT03856G
  5. J Lim, V. Chintalapudi, H. Gudmundsson, M. Tran, A. Bernasconi, A. Blanco, L.Song, G. Challis, E. Anderson, Synthesis of the C1-C27 fragment of stambomycins D validates modular polyketide synthase-based stereochemical assignments, Org. Lett., 2021, 23, 19, 7439-7444,
  6. Borsetto, S. Raguideau, E. Travis, D. Kim, D. Lee, A. Bottrill, R. Stark, L. Song, J. Cha, J. Pearson, C. Quince, A. Singer, E. Wellington, Impact of sulfamethoxazole on a riverine microbiome, Water Research, 2021, 117382, 11,
  7. Zhou, H. Bhukya, N. Malet, P. Harrison, D. Rea, M. Belousoff, H. Venugopal, P. Sydor, K. Styles, L. Song, M. Cryle, L. Alkhalaf, V. Fulop, G. Challis, C. Corre, Structural basis for control of antibiotic production by bacterial hormones, Nature, 2021, 590, 463-467, Doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03195x
  8. Chhun, D. Sousoni, M. Aguilo-Ferretjans, L. Song, C. Corre, J. Christie-Oleza, Phytoplankton trigger the production of cryptic metabolites in the marine actinobacteria Salinispora tropica, Microbio. Biotech, 2020, 14 (1), 291-306, Doi:10.1111/1751-7915.13722
  9. Sidda, L. Song, J. Parker, D. Studholme, C. Sambles, M. Grant, Diversity of secoiridoid glycosides in leaves of UK and Danish ash provide new insight for ash dieback management, Scientific Rep., 2020, 10(1), 19566, DOI: 10.1038/541598-020-76140-z
  10. Zhou, N. Malet, L. Song, C. Corre, G. Challis, MmfL catalyses formation of a phosphorylated butenolide intermediate in methylenomycin furan biosynthesis, Chem Comm., 2020, 56(92), 14443-14446, DOI: 10.1039/D0CC05658H
  11. D. Zabala, L. Song, Y. Dashti, G. Challis, J. Salas, C, Mendez. Heterologous reconstitution of the biosynthesis pathway for 4-demethyl-premithramycinone, the aglycone of antitumor polyketide mithramycin, Microbial Cell Factory, 2020, 19 (1), 1-12
  12. P. Becher, V. Verschut, M. Bibb, M. Bush, B. Molnar, E. Barane, M. Bassam, G. Chandra, L. Song, G. Challis, M. Buttner, K. Flardh. Developmentally regulated volatiles geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol attract springtails to Streptomyces bacteria as vectors for spore dispersal, Nat. Microbiology, 2020, 5, 821-829
  13. A. Banks, L. Song, G. Challis, A. Bailey, G. Foster. Bovistol B, bovistol D and strossmayerin: Sesquiterpene metabolites from the culture filtrate of the basidiomycete Coprinopsis strossmayeri, PLoS ONE, 2020, 15 (4), e0229925
  14. S. Zhou, L. Song, J. Masschelein, F. Sumang, I. Papa, T. Zulaybar, A. Custodio, D. Zabala, E. Alcantara, E. de los Santos,G. Challis. Pentamycin Biosynthesis in Philippine Streptomyces sp. S816: Cytochrome P450-Catalyzed Installation of the C‑14 Hydroxyl Group, ACS Chem. Biol., 2019, 14, 1305-1309
  15. 5. D. Thankachan, A. Fazal, D. Francis, L. Song, M. Webb, R. Seipke, A trans-​acting cyclase off-​loading strategy for non-​ribosomal peptide synthetases, ACS Chem Biol., 2019, 14, 845-849
  16. F. Alberti, D. Leng, I. Wilkening, M. Tosin, L. Song, C. Corre, Triggering the expression of a silent gene cluster from genetically intractable bacteria results in scleric acid discovery, Chem. Sci., 2019, 10, 453-463
  17. C. Perry, J. Sargeant, L. Song, G. Challis, Relative stereochemical assignment of C33 and C35 in the antibiotic gladiolin, Tetrahedron, 2018, 74 (38), 5150-5155
  18. S. Banerjee, J. Soldevila, J. Wolny, C. Wootton, A. Habtemariam, I. Romero, F. Chen, G. Clarkson, I. Prokes, L. Song, P. O'Connor, V. Schunemann, P. Sadler. New activation mechanism for half-sandwich organometallic anticancer complexes, Chem Sci., 2018, 9, 3177-3188
  19. Z. Anderson, C. Hobson, R. Needley, L. Song, M. Perryman, P. Kerby, and D. Fox, NMR-based assignment of isoleucine vs allo-isoleucine stereochemistry. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 2017, 15, 9372-9378
  20. D. Blessborn, K. Kaewkhao, L. Song, NJ White, NPJ Day, J Tarning, Quantification of the antimalarial drug pyronaridine in whole blood using LC-MS/MS-increased sensitivity resulting from reduced non-specific binding, J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017, 146: 214-219
  21. L. Song, M. Jenner, J. Masschelein, C. Jones, M. Bull, S. Harris, R. Hartkoorn, A. Vocat, I. Romero-Canelón, P. Coupland, Paul, G. Webster, M. Dunn, R. Weiser, C. Paisey, S. Cole, J. Parkhill, E. Mahenthiralingam and G. L. Challis. Discovery and biosynthesis of gladiolin: a Burkholderia gladioli antibiotic with promising activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139(23)7974-7981
  22. O. Tsypik, R. Makitrynskyy, A. Bera, L. Song, W. Wohlleben, V. Fedorenko, B. Ostash, Role of GntR Family Regulatory Gene SCO1678 in Gluconate Metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, BioMed Research International, 2017,
  23. Y. Inahashi, S. Zhou, M. Bibb, L. Song, M. Al-Bassam, M. Bibb and G. Challis. Watasemycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae: thiazoline C-methylation by a type B radical-SAM methylase homologue. Chem. Sci. 2017, 8, 2823-2831
  24. M. Sotenko, S. Coles, G. Barker, L. Song, Y. Jiang, P. Longhurst, T. Romanova, O. Shuvaeva, K. Kirwan. Phytoremediation combined with biorefinery on the example of two agricultural crops grown on Ni soil and degraded by P. chrysosporium. Int. J. Phytoremediation., 2016, Dec 12:0
  25. L. Ray, T. Valentic, T. Miyazawa, D. Withall, L. Song, H. Osada, S. Takahashi, S. Tsai, G. Challis, Structural basis for acyl-CoA carboxylase-mediated assembly of unusual polyketide synthase extender units incorporated into the stambomycin antibiotics, Nat Comm., 2016, 7, 13609
  26. A. Thanapipatsiri, J. Gomez-Escribano, L. Song, M. Bibb, M. Al-Bassam, G. Chandra, A. Thamchaipenet, G. Challis and M. Bibb, Discovery of unusual biaryl polyketides by activation of a silent Streptomyces venezuelae biosynthetic gene cluster, ChemBioChem, 2016, 17,2189-2198
  27. I. Wilkening, S. Gazzola, E. Riva, J. Parascandolo, L. Song, M. Tosin. Second-generation probes for biosynthetic intermediate capture: towards a comprehensive profiling of polyketide assembly. Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 10392-10395
  28. J. Sidda, V. Poon, L. Song, W. Wang, K. Yang, C. Corre. Overproduction and identification of butyrolactones SCB1-8 in the antibiotic production super host Streptomyces M1152. Org. Biomol. Chem., 2016, 14(27), 6390-6393
  29. D. Zabala, J. Cartwright, D. Roberts, B. Law, L. Song, M. Samborskyy, P. Leadlay, J. Micklefield, and G. Challis. A flavin-dependent decarboxylase-dehydrogenase-monooxygenase assembles the warhead of α, β-epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 137, 432-435
  30. J. Parascandolo, J. Havemann, H. Potter, F. Huang, E. Riva, J. Connolly, I. Wilkening, L. Song, P. Leadlay, M. Tosin, Novel insights into 6-methylsalicylic acid bio-assembly via chemical probes, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2016,55(10), 3463-3467
  31. C. Amaratunga, P. Lim, S. Suon, S. Sreng, S. Mao, C. Sopha, B. Sam, D. Dek, V. Try, R. Amato, D. Blessborn, L. Song, G. Tullo, M. Fay, J. Anderson, J. Tarning, R. Fairhurst. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia: a multi-site observational cohort study, Lancet Infectious Disease, 2016, 16(3), 357-365
  32. N. Liu*, L. Song*, M. Liu*, F. Shang, Z. Anderson, D. Fox, G. L. Challis, Y. Huang, Unique post-translational ­oxime formation in the biosynthesis of the azolemycin complex of novel ribosomal peptides from Streptomyces sp. FXJ1.264, Chem. Sci., 2016, 7(1), 482-488 (* Co-first author)
  33. B. Uytterhoeven, K. Appermans, L. Song, J. Masschelein, C. Michiels, R. Lavigne, Systematic analysis of the kalimantacin assembly line NRPS module using an adapted targeted mutagenesis approach, Microbiology Open, 2016, 5(2), 279-286
  34. R. Leang, W. Taylor, D. Bouth, L. Song, J. Tarning, M. Char, S. Kim, B. Witkowski, V. Duru, A. Domergue, N. Khim, P. Ringwald, D. Menard, Evidence of falciparum malaria multidrug resistance to artemisinin and piperaquine in western Cambodia: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine open-label multicenter clinical assessment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 2015, 59(8), 4719-4726
  35. J. Gubbens, H. Zhu, G. Girard, L. Song, B. Florea, P. Aston, K. Ichinose, D. Filippov, Y. Choi, H. Overkleeft, G. Challis, G. van Wezel, Natural Product Proteomining, a Quantitative Proteomics Platform, Allows Rapid Discovery of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters for Different Classes of Natural Products. Chem. Biol., 2014, 21(6), 707-718
  36. L. Song, L. Laureti, C. Corre, P. Leblond, B. Agile, G. L. Challis. Cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylation is required for polyketide macrolactonisation in stambomycin biosynthesis. J. Antibiotic, 2014, 67, 71-76
  37. J. Sida, L. Song, V. Poon, M. Al-Bassam, O. Lazos, M. Buttner, G. Challis, C. Corre. Discovery of a family of γ-aminobutyrate ureas via rational derepression of a silent bacterial gene cluster, Chem. Sci., 2014, 5 (1), 86-89
  38. J. Suberu, P. Yamin, K. Leonhard, L. Song, S. Chemat, N. Sullivan, G. Barker, A. Lapkin . The effect of O-methylated flavonoids and other co-metabolites on the crystallization and purification of artemisinin. J. Biotechnol., 2014, 171, 25-33
  39. J. Suberu, L. Song, N. Sullivan,S. Slade, G. Barker, A. Lapkin, A rapid method for the determination of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursor in Artemisia annua L. crude extract. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 2013, 84, 269-277
  40. S. Kodani, J. Bicz, L. Song, R. Deeth, M. Ohnish-Kameyama,M. Yoshida, K. Ochi, and G. L. Challis. Structure and biosynthesis of scabichelin, a novel tris-hydroxamate siderophore produced by the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87.22. Org. Biomol. Chem., 2013, 11, 4686-4694
  41. Y. Zhao, J Woods, N. Farrer, K. Robinson, J. Pracharova, J. Kasparkova, O. Nokakova, H. Li, L. Salassa, A. Pizarro, G. Clarkson, L. Song, V. Brabec, P. Sadler, Diazido mixed-amine platinum(IV) anticancer complexes activatable by visible light form novel DNA adducts, Chem. Eur. J., 2013, 19(29), 9578-9591
  42. J. Gomez-Escribano*, L. Song*, M. Bibb, G.. Challis, Posttranslational β-methylation and macrolactamidination in the biosynthesis of the bottromycin complex of ribosomal peptide antibiotics, Chem. Sci, 2012, 3, 3522-3525. (* co-first author)
  43. S. Barry, J. Kers, E. Johnson, L. Song, P. Aston, B. Patel, S. Krasnoff, B. Crane, D. Gibson, R. Loria and G. Challis. Cytochrome P450–catalyzed L-tryptophan nitration in thaxtomin phytotoxin biosynthesis. Nat. Chem. Biol., 2012, 8, 814-816
  44. A. Gerc*, L. Song*, G. L. Challis, N. R. Stanley-Wall, S. J. Coulthurst, Identification and characterisation of the althiomycin biosynthetic operon of Serratia marcescens Db10, PLoS ONE, 2012, 7(9), e44673 (* Co-first Author).
  45. J. Gomez-Escribano*, L. Song*, D.J.Fox, M. Bibb, G.L. Challis, Identification of the yellow-pigmented polyketide product of the cryptic cpk gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor M145, Chem. Sci, 2012,3(9), 2716-2720. (* co-first author)
  46. S. Lautru, L. Song, L. Demange, H. Galons, G. L. Challis and Jean-Luc Pernodet. A Sweet Origin for the Key Congocidine Precursor 4-Acetamidopyrrole-2-carboxylate. Angew. Chem Int. Ed., 2012, 51(30), 7454-7458
  47. Y. Fu, M. Romero, A. Habtemariam, M. Snowden, L. Song, G. Clarkson, B. Qamar, A. Pizarro, P. Unwin and P. Sadler, The Contrasting Chemical Reactivity of Potent Isoelectronic Iminopyridine and Azopyridine Osmium(II) Arene Anticancer Complexes, Chem. Sci., 2012, 3(8), 2485-2494.
  48. P. Milnes, M. McKee, J. Bath, L. Song , E. Stulz, A. Turberfield and R. O'Reilly, Sequence- specific synthesis of macromolecules using DNA-templated chemistry, Chem. Comm., 2012, 48,5614-5616
  49. L. Song, L. Laureti, J.-P. Gomez-Escribano, D. Fox, V. Yeo, C. Corre, S. Huang, P. Leblond, B. Aigle, M. Bibb and G. L. Challis. Bacterial Genome Mining for Novel Natural Product Discovery. Planta Med., 2012, 78, 1030
  50. S. Schmelz, C.H. Botting, L. Song, N. Kadi, G.L. Challis and J.H. Naismith. Structural basis for acyl acceptor specificity in the achrombactin biosynthetic enzyme AcsD. J. Mol. Biol., 2011, 412 (3)495-504
  51. R. Seipke, L. Song, J. Bic, P. Laskaris, A. Yaxley, G. L. Challis, R. Loria, Expression of a pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces scabies 87022 is regulated by TetR- and AfsR- family regulatory proteins. Microbiology, 2011, 157, 2681-2693
  52. L. Laureti*, L. Song*, S. Huang, C. Corre, P. Leblond, G.L. Challis and B. Aigle. A new class of bioactive macrolide discovered by activation of a silent polyketide synthase. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 2011,108(15), 6258-6263, (*co-first author)
  53. E. Mahenthiralingam, L. Song, A. Sass, J. White,C. Wilmot, A. Marchbank, O. Boaisha, J. Paine, D. Knight, G. Challis, Enacyloxins are products of an unusual hybrid modular polyketide synthase encoded by a cryptic Burkholderia ambifaria genomic island.Chem. Biol., 2011, 18(5), 665-677
  54. R. Bunet, L. Song, M. V. Mendrea, C. Corre, L. Hotel, N Rouhler, X. Framboisier, P Leblond, G.L.Challis, B. Aigle. Characterisation and manipulation of the pathway specific regulator AlpW reveals Streptomyces ambofaciens a new producer of kinamycins. J. Bacteriol., 2011, 195, 1142-1153
  55. P. Sydor, S. Barry, O. Odulate, F. Barona-Gomez, S. Haynes, C. Corre, L. Song, G. L. Challis, Antibiotic Oxidative Carbocyclizations Catalyzed by Rieske Oxygenase-Like Enzymes, Nat. Chem., 2011, 3, 388-392
  56. S. Haynes, P. Sydor, C. Corre, L. Song, and G.L. Challis. Stereochemical elucidation of streptorubin B. J. Am. Chem. Soc.,2011, 133 (6), 1793-1798
  57. P. Patel, L Song, G.L.Challis, Distinct extracytoplasmic siderophore binding proteins recognise ferrioxamines and ferricoelichelin in Streptomyces Coelicolor A3(2), Biochemistry, 2010, 49, 8033-8042
  58. B. Aigle, R. Bunet, C. Corre,; A. Garenaux, L. Hotel, S. Huang, L. Laureti, S. Lautru, M/. Mendes, S. Nezbedova, H. Nguyen, L Song, J. Weiser, G. Challis, P. Leblond, J.Pernodet. Genome-guided exploration of Streptomyces ambofaciens secondary metabolism. Streptomyces, 2011, 179-194.
  59. Y. Chen, J. Scanlan, L Song, A. Crombie, M. Rahman, H. Schafer, C. Murrell, γ-glutamylmethylamide is essential in the metabolism of methylamine by Methylocella silvestris BL2. Appl. Environ Microbiol., 2010, 76(3), 4530-4537
  60. C. Corre, S. W. Haynes, N. Malet, L. Song and G. L. Challis A butenolide intermediate in methylenomycin furan biosynthesis is implied by incorporation of stereospecifically 13C-labelled glycerols, Chem. Comm., 2010, 46, 4079-4081
  61. D. Oves-Costales, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Enantioselective desymmetrisation of citric acid catalysed by the substrate-tolerant petrobactin biosynthetic enzyme AsbA. Chem. Comm., 2009, 1389-1391.
  62. S. Schmelz, N. Kadi, S. McMahon, L. Song, D. Oves-Costales, M. Oke, H. Liu, K. Johnson, L.G. Carter, C.H. Botting, M.F. White, G.L. Challis and J.H. Naismith, AcsD catalyzes enantioselective citrate desymmetrization in siderophore biosynthesis. Nat. Chem. Biol., 2009, 5, 174-182.
  63. C. Corre, L. Song, S. O'Rourke, K.F. Chater and G.L. Challis. 2-Alkyl-4-hydroxymethylfuran-3-carboxylic acids, antibiotic production inducers discovered by Streptomyces coelicolor genome mining. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 2008, 105, 17510-17515.
  64. N. Kadi, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Bisucaberin biosynthesis: An adenylating domain of the BibC multi-enzyme catalyzes cyclodimerization of N-hydroxy-N-succinylcadaverine. Chem. Comm., 2008, 5119-5121.
  65. Z. Mitchell, M.T.G. Holden, J. Parkhill, L. Song, G.L. Challis, C. Robinson, N. Davis-Poynter and A.S. Waller. A novel streptococcal integrative conjugative element involved in iron acquisition. Mol. Microbiol., 2008, 70, 1274-1292.
  66. D. Oves-Costales, N. Kadi, M.J. Fogg, L. Song, K.S. Wilson and G.L. Challis. Petrobactin biosynthesis: AsbB catalyses ATP-dependent condensation of spermidine with N8-citryl-spermidine and its N1-(3, 4-dihydroxybenzyl) derivative. Chem. Comm., 2008, 4034-4036.
  67. N. Kadi, S. Arbache, L. Song, D. Oves-Costales and G.L. Challis. Identification of a gene cluster that directs putrebactin biosynthesis in Shewanella species: PubC catalyzes ATP-dependent cyclodimerization of N-hydroxy-N-succinyl-putrescine. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 10458-10459.
  68. S. Haynes, P. Sydor, A. Stanley, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Role and substrate specificity of the Streptomyces coelicolor RedH enzyme in undecylprodiginine biosynthesis. Chem. Comm., 2008, 1865-1867.
  69. S. Mo, P. Sydor, C. Corre, M. Alhamadsheh, A. Stanley, S. Haynes, L. Song, K.A. Reynolds and G.L. Challis. Elucidation of the Streptomyces coelicolor pathway to 2-undecylpyrrole, a key intermediate in undecylprodiginine and streptorubin B biosynthesis. Chem. Biol., 2008, 15, 137-148.
  70. D. Oves-Costales, N. Kadi, M. Fogg, L. Song, K. Wilson, G.L. Challis, Enzymatic logic of anthrax stealth siderophore biosynthesis: AsbA catalyzes ATP-dependant condensation of citric acid and spermidine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 6017-6018
  71. L. Song and P. Thornalley, Effects of storage, cooking and processing on glucosinolates and related metabolites in Brassica vegetables, Food and Chem. Toxicl., 2007, 45, 216-224
  72. L. Song, F. Barona-Gomez, C. Corre, L. Xiang, D. W. Udwary, M. Austin, J. P. Noel, B. S. Moore and G. L. Challis, Type III polyketide synthase extender unit specificity in germicidin biosynthesis discovered by Streptomyces Coelicolor genome mining, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 14754-14755
  73. D. Dobler, N. Ahmad, L. Song, K. Eboigbodin, P. Thornalley, Increased dicarbonyl metabolism in endothelial cells in hyperglycemia induces anoikis and impairs angiogenesis by RGD and GFOGER motif modification, Diabetes, 2006, 55, 1961-1969
  74. L. Song, R. Iori, P. Thornalley, Purification of major glucosinolates from Brassicaceae seeds and preparation of isothiocyanates and amine metabolites, J. Sci. Food and Agriculture. 2006, 86, 1271-1280
  75. L. Song, J. Morrison, N. Botting, P. Thornalley, Analysis of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates and amines degradation products in vegetable extracts and blood plasma by LC-MS/MS, Analytical Biochemistry, 2005, 347, 234-243
  76. G. McWalter, L. Higgins, L, McLellan, C. Henderson, L. Song, P. Thornalley, K. Itoh, M. Yamamoto, J. Hayes. Transcription factor Nrf2 is essential for induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione cysteine ligase by broccoli seeds and isothiocyanates, J. Nutrition, 2004, 134, 3499s-3506s