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Growth methods for semiconductor crystals


Methods for semiconductor growth can fall into two broad categories: physical vapour deposition (PVD) and chemical vapour deposition (CVD). In PVD the material, typically in elemental form, is evaporated within effusion cells and deposited onto a substrate. CVD processes utilise chemical precursors, typically volatile gases, which react with one another near to or on the substrate surface. This results in the deposition of the reaction product onto the surface and growth occuring.

Some examples of PVD methods used:

Examples of CVD methods:

  • APCVD (atmospheric pressure CVD)
  • RPCVD (reduced pressure CVD)
  • UHVCVD (ultra-high vacuum CVD)
  • PECVD (plasma enhanced CVD)
  • MOCVD (metal-organic CVD)
  • Colloidal chemistry


  • A. Chambers (2005). Modern Vacuum Physics, Chapman & Hall (CRC). ISBN 0-8493-2438-6