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Energy Applications

Energy Applications Group

Energising the future

With the world moving away from the combustion engine, the focus of the electric transition in transport has been dominated by private passenger vehicles.

However, the usage cases for other transportation modes (vans, heavy duty vehicles, rail, marine, aircraft, off highway) are more challenging than those for passenger cars and present additional electrification challenges.

The work of the EAG is how to make the most efficient use of the available (limited) energy in specialist applications, and has been used by component developers, powertrain integrators, OEMs, electrical grid suppliers, operators, airports, ports, think tanks and policy developers.

About our research

Our focus is on identifying optimal zero-emission solutions for practical applications by fully understanding the problem at hand. We capture real-world data and requirements, enabling analysis based on actual problems. Through extensive simulation and modelling, we conduct what-if analyses, and our control capability explores innovative solutions within a systems engineering approach. We analyze and optimize any application involving energy, ranging from electric propulsion system selection for vehicles to fleet control and optimization. Our expertise spans automotive, aerospace, off-highway, rail, and marine sectors, encompassing system analysis, system modeling and simulation, and system control.

Our research focuses on the following areas:

  • Data collection and analysis of real-world usage data. This is not only a means to get the right data to support our research below but requires the use of new techniques, especially where brand-new technology is being applied.
  • Modelling and simulation of complex systems (and systems of systems) with energy flows to support technology and design choices. This has been primarily aimed at modelling zero emission technology but has also expanded into thermal modelling, dynamic modelling, as well as life cycle and cost benefit analysis in order to give a complete picture.
  • Innovative control solutions are our other main area of research. The scope is wide but includes thermal management, energy–power management, dynamic control, fleet management and optimisation.


Use Case Analysis

System Modelling and Control

System Analysis

  • Big Data Mining and Decision Making
  • Data Collection
  • Data Extraction
  • Benchmarking
  • Duty Cycle Identification
  • Duty Cycle Analysis
  • User Interactions with System
  • Scenario Creation / Definition
  • Energy / Power Modelling
  • Thermal Modelling
  • Efficiency Modelling
  • Dynamics Models
  • Fleet models
  • System (white to black box modules)
  • X-in-the-loop Simulation Platforms
  • Scenario Modelling
  • Advanced Control Techniques
  • System Control
  • Energy Management / Optimisation
  • Charging Control
  • Regen Control vs Dynamics Control
  • V2G Control
  • Thermal Control / Optimisation
  • Fleet Management / Optimisation
  • Vehicle to X Control
  • Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) Energy Modelling
  • Cost Benefit Analysis
  • CO2 Effects
  • Life Cycle Analysis
  • Manufacturing Analysis
  • Cost Analysis
  • System Architecture Selection
  • Technology Selection
  • Ready Reckoner
  • System Targets and Trade off
  • Sub-system Specification / Cascade
  • Effect of component changes.
  • What-if Analysis
  • Functional Safety
  • System Integration
  • V2G, Fleet, Charging , Port/Airport
  • System sizing analysis.
  • Grid Balance
  • Ancillaries / Non Powertrain optimisation
  • Intervention studies

Focus areas

Use case analysis and requirements capture

Understanding how the system is to be used and what the critical deign priorities are, is essential in developing an optimised system.

We deploy multiple approaches in order to get this essential data and can also help partners collect this data themselves or analyse existing data.

Energy modelling

The move to electrification of transport has led to greater focus on modelling of energy use in a range of scenarios. We have a flexible toolset that can model energy flows in a system to achieve optimum component sizing. We provide a range of model fidelities from a high level “ready reckoner” through to more detailed powertrain models. Our innovative Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) model allows the investigation of electrified energy systems with multiple actors.

Benchmarking/Data Collection

Use of novel techniques to get real world data reading operation, control, energy flows and much more. Used for system design, model creation and validation.

A full-service supplier – instrumentation, data collection and subsequent analysis.

Vehicle and system tear down and weight analysis – including, where possible, 3-D imagining

Energy management- Control Design- Real-time verification

We provide essential energy management and control algorithms for transportation and energy systems, ensuring optimal performance across various conditions. Our solutions, ranging from high-level system control to power-energy management and actuator control, employ a spectrum of techniques, from state machines to advanced controls like robust/adaptive control, AI, and machine learning. For swift prototyping, we offer customized simulation platforms (X-in-the-Loop concepts), enabling rigorous testing, calibration, and verification of control designs in diverse scenarios before implementation in real vehicles or energy systems.

Multiphysics Modelling

Understanding the complex interactions between various physical phenomena is crucial for designing robust and efficient systems. Our multiphysics modelling approach combines different disciplines, such as thermal, fluid, and structural analyses, to simulate real-world behaviours. By integrating these aspects, we can optimize system performance, anticipate potential challenges, and ensure a comprehensive design process. Whether it's thermal management, structural integrity, or fluid dynamics, our multiphysics simulations provide insights that guide effective decision-making.

Electrification Cost and Emissions Analysis

The technical solution determined through modelling is only part of the solution. In order for solutions to be capable of adoption a clear Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) must be performed.

This CBA, when combined with the emissions predictions from our suite of models, allows users to determine the most cost effective solution and the optimum timescales for adoption.

Battery Modelling

At the core of electrified systems, batteries significantly influence overall performance. Our expertise in battery modeling, spanning cell chemistry to pack architecture, utilizes advanced simulation tools to predict performance and lifespan accurately. From understanding electrochemical processes to thermal behavior and aging effects, our models guide the selection of battery chemistry, optimization of thermal management, and the design of reliable energy storage solutions. Whether exploring new chemistries or improving existing systems, our battery modeling capabilities empower informed decision-making.

Recent publications

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