A scanning white light interferometer is developed to measure the distributed polarization coupling (DPC) in high birefringence polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs). Traditionally, this technique requests only one polarization mode to be excited or both polarization modes to be excited with equal intensity in the PMF. Thus, an accurate alignment of the polarization direction with the principal axis in PMF is strictly required, which is not facilely realized in practical measurement. This paper develops a method to measure the spatial distribution of polarization mode coupling with random modes excited using a white light Michelson interferometer. The influence of incident polarization extinction ratio (PER) on polarization coupling detection is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. It is also analyzed and validated in corresponding measurement that the sensitivity of the polarization coupling detection system can be improved more than 100 times with the rotation of the analyzer.
Distributed polarization coupling in polarization-maintaining fibers can be detected by using a white light Michelson interferometer. This technique usually requires that only one polarization mode is excited. However, in practical measurement, the injection polarization direction could not be exactly aligned to one of the principal axes of the PMF, so the influence of the polarization extinction ratio should be considered. Based on the polarization coupling theory, the influence of the incident polarization extinction on the measurement result is evaluated and analyzed, and a method for distributed polarization coupling detection is developed when both two orthogonal eigenmodes are excited.
High bit rates optical communication systems pose the challenge of their tolerance to linear and non-linear fiber impairments. Coherent optical receivers using digital signal processing techniques can mitigate the fiber impairments in the optical transmission system, including the chromatic dispersion equalization with digital filters. In this paper, an adaptive finite impulse response filter employing normalized least mean square algorithm is developed for compensating the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying coherent communication system, which is established in the VPI simulation platform. The principle of the adaptive normalized least mean square algorithm for signal equalization is analyzed theoretically, and at the meanwhile, the taps number and the tap weights in the adaptive finite impulse response filter for compensating a certain fiber chromatic dispersion are also investigated by numerical simulation. The chromatic dispersion compensation performance of the adaptive filter is analyzed by evaluating the behavior of the bit-error-rate versus the optical signal-to-noise ratio, and the compensation results are also compared with other present digital filters.
We present a comparative analysis of three popular digital filters for chromatic dispersion compensation: a time-domain least mean square adaptive filter, a time-domain fiber dispersion finite impulse response filter, and a frequency-domain blind look-up filter. The filters are applied to equalize the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying transmission system. The characteristics of these filters are compared by evaluating their applicability for different fiber lengths, their usability for dispersion perturbations, and their computational complexity. In addition, the phase noise tolerance of these filters is also analyzed.
The improvement of a low concentration gas detection system based on the intracavity fiber laser is proposed in this paper. The sensitivity of the system is deduced based on Lambert–Beer law. The optimized system was established with the gas cell made elaborately. In order to apply the wavelength sweeping technique, the fiber Bragg grating reflector was substituted by the wavelength independent Faraday rotation reflector. The sensitivity of the system for acetylene detection is reduced to less than 100 ppm by using the average of three absorption spectra. The acetylene detection coefficients of variation with different concentrations are measured. The gas measurement system is validated to detect low concentration gas effectively.
Microtubules are long linear polymers that switch randomly between periods of growth and shrinkage, in a process known as dynamic instability. In vivo, dynamic instability is regulated by microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). One class of MAPS, the kinesins, move actively along microtubules, and some regulate microtubule dynamics. Kinesin-8, a kinesin, regulates microtubule dynamics in a wide range of eukaryotic cells.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) provides a well-characterised system in which to study microtubule regulation by MAPs. During interphase, microtubules grow from the centre of the rod-shaped cell until their plus ends reach and pause at the cell end, before undergoing catastrophe and shrinking. Shrinkage occurs predominantly at cell ends, even as the cell grows longer.
I have studied the cell biology of kinesin-8-dependent interphase microtubule dynamics in S. pombe. I have identified an interphase-specific binding partner of S. pombe kinesin-8 (Klp5/Klp6); Mcp1. Mcp1 was required for Klp5/Klp6 accumulation at interphase microtubule plus ends and for Klp5/Klp6 induced interphase microtubule shrinkage.
Tea2 (a kinesin) and Tip1 (CLIP170 orthologue) were found to stabilise interphase microtubules. Cells lacking Tea2 or Tip1 displayed interphase microtubules which, after reaching cell ends, underwent shrinkage sooner than wild type cells. Cells lacking Klp5/Klp6 or Mcp1 showed the opposite phenotype, microtubules which dwelt at cell ends longer than control cells before shrinking.
Klp5/Klp6 accumulation on interphase microtubule plus ends steadily increased, peaking just before microtubule shrinkage. In contrast, Tea2 accumulated rapidly to newly nucleated interphase microtubule plus ends and was lost before microtubule shrinkage. I propose a model in which Tea2 prevents Klp5/Klp6 induced microtubule shrinkage until the interphase microtubule has grown to the cell end, where Tea2 is lost. At the cell end Klp5/Klp6 now induce shrinkage.
Xylan and cellulose are abundant polysaccharides in vascular plants and essential for secondary cell wall strength. Acetate or glucuronic acid decorations are exclusively found on even-numbered residues in most of the glucuronoxylan polymer. It has been proposed that this even-specific positioning of the decorations might permit docking of xylan onto the hydrophilic face of a cellulose microfibril1,2,3. Consequently, xylan adopts a flattened ribbon-like twofold screw conformation when bound to cellulose in the cell wall4. Here we show that ESKIMO1/XOAT1/TBL29, a xylan-specific O-acetyltransferase, is necessary for generation of the even pattern of acetyl esters on xylan in Arabidopsis. The reduced acetylation in the esk1 mutant deregulates the position-specific activity of the xylan glucuronosyltransferase GUX1, and so the even pattern of glucuronic acid on the xylan is lost. Solid-state NMR of intact cell walls shows that, without the even-patterned xylan decorations, xylan does not interact normally with cellulose fibrils. We conclude that the even pattern of xylan substitutions seen across vascular plants enables the interaction of xylan with hydrophilic faces of cellulose fibrils, and is essential for development of normal plant secondary cell walls.
A model for the phase noise influence in differential n-level phase shift keying (nPSK) systems and 2n-level quadrature amplitude modulated (2nQAM) systems employing electronic dispersion equalization and quadruple carrier phase extraction is presented. The model includes the dispersion equalization enhanced local oscillator phase noise influence. Numerical results for phase noise error-rate floors are given for dual polarization (DQPSK, D16PSK and D64PSK) system configurations with basic baud-rate of 25 GS/s. The transmission distance in excess of 1000 km requires local oscillator lasers with sub-MHz linewidth.
In this paper we present a comparative study of the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) for pre- and post-compensation of chromatic dispersion in high capacity and high constellation systems. This is to our knowledge the first detailed study in this area for pre-compensation systems. Our main results show that the local oscillator phase noise determines the EEPN influence in post-compensation implementations whereas the transmitter laser determines the EEPN in pre-compensation implementations. As a result of significance for the implementation of practical longer-range systems it is to be emphasized that the use of chromatic dispersion equalization in the optical domain e.g. by the use of dispersion compensation fibers eliminates the EEPN entirely. Thus, this seems an efficient solution for such systems operating at high constellations in the future.
For coherent and direct-detection Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (OFDM) systems employing radio frequency (RF) pilot tone phase noise cancellation the influence of laser phase noise is evaluated. Novel analytical results for the common phase error and for the (modulation dependent) inter carrier interference are evaluated based upon Gaussian statistics for the laser phase noise. In the evaluation it is accounted for that the laser phase noise is filtered in the correlation signal detection. Numerical results are presented for OFDM systems with 4 and 16 PSK modulation, 200 OFDM bins and baud rate of 1 GS/s. It is found that about 225 km transmission is feasible for the coherent 4PSK-OFDM system over normal (G.652) fiber.
In this paper, a novel method for extracting an RF pilot carrier signal in the coherent receiver is presented. The RF carrier is used to mitigate the phase noise influence in n-level PSK and QAM systems. The performance is compared to the use of an (ideal) optically transmitted RF pilot tone. As expected an electronically generated RF carrier provides less efficient phase noise mitigation than the optical RF. However, the electronically generated RF carrier still improves the phase noise tolerance by about one order of magnitude in bit error rate (BER) compared to using no RF pilot tone. It is also found, as a novel study result, that equalization enhanced phase noise - which appears as correlated pure phase noise, amplitude noise and time jitter - cannot be efficiently mitigated by the use of an (optically or electrically generated) RF pilot tone.
The rise in popularity of the Paralympics in recent years has created a need for effective, low-cost sports-prosthetic devices for upper-limb amputees. There are various opportunities for lower-limb amputees to participate in cycling; however, there are only few options for those with upper-limb amputations. If the individual previously participated in cycling, a cycling-specific prosthesis could allow these activities to be integrated into rehabilitation methods. This article describes the processes involved with designing, developing and manufacturing such a prosthesis. The fundamental needs of people with upper-limb amputation were assessed and realised in the prototype of a transradial terminal device with two release mechanisms, including a sliding mechanism (for falls and minor collisions) and clamping mechanism (for head-on collisions). The sliding mechanism requires the rider to exert approximately 200 N, while the clamping mechanism requires about 700 N. The force ranges can be customised to match rider requirements. Experiments were conducted in a controlled environment to demonstrate stability of the device during normal cycling. Moreover, a volunteer test-rider was able to successfully activate the release mechanism during a simulated emergency scenario. The development of this prosthesis has the potential to enable traumatic upper-limb amputees to participate in cycling for rehabilitation or recreation.
The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlapsave method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.
We present a novel investigation on the enhancement of phase noise in coherent optical transmission system due to electronic chromatic dispersion compensation. Two types of equalizers, including a time domain fiber dispersion finite impulse response (FD-FIR) filter and a frequency domain blind look-up (BLU) filter are applied to mitigate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) transmission system. The bit-error-rate (BER) floor in phase estimation using an optimized one-tap normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) filter, and considering the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) is evaluated analytically including the correlation effects. The numerical simulations are implemented and compared with the performance of differential QPSK demodulation system.
In this thesis, I examine the socio-cognitive processes of sensemaking in entrepreneurial ventures, through observing the language and behaviour of board directors in such ventures. Entrepreneurial ventures often require venture capital as a source of finance and the venture capitalist often places a non-executive director, termed an investor director, on the board of the venture to primarily look after their interests. Although there are many minor deviations from the business plan over time, substantial adverse deviations from plan also occur, which if not addressed, have the potential to jeopardise the survival of the business. These more substantial deviations from plan may invoke the investor directors to consider changing the direction of the venture, which is an ideal setting in which to study sensemaking because there is a need for the venture's stakeholders, whom the board of directors represent, to seek new understanding of the change. Processes such as sensemaking and sensegiving involve observing and interpreting individuals and groups of homogeneous actors, and in the context of entrepreneurial ventures, this has yet to be considered involving the constructions and accounts of such actors constituting the board of directors. My study calls for a qualitative method, like previous studies in this area, with the potential to compare situations across similar case studies of comparable organisations, and hence I obtained longitudinal data through semi-structured interviews and desk research over thirteen years from archival, historical and real-time field observations from board directors to observe how board processes unfold over time. In total, six sensemaking episodes were selected where the companies adversely deviated substantially from the warranted business plan. The decisions that followed each sensemaking episode were varied; two episodes were followed by consensual board decisions, two episodes were followed by forced board decisions whereby some board members disagreed or agreed reluctantly to support the board decision, and two were followed by protracted indecision, resulting in board paralysis and eventual company failure. From this empirical study, I present new processes with discrete phases for both encapsulated and open sensemaking; the two types of sensemaking observed from the empirical data. I argue that the use of economic capital and power dynamics used during encapsulated sensemaking may be antagonistic to consensual decision-making and these findings run counter to the traditionally held view that sensemaking assists in moving chaotic situations to a more ordered environment and one in which sensemaking unfolds in a manner which progressively increases the likelihood of venture failure, suggesting that not all sensemaking is positive. In understanding the various phases, I present relationships between actors' social positions and their sensemaking in entrepreneurial ventures and consider the effects of sensemaking, power and the mediation skills of the Chair on the strategic decision-making outcomes of the sensemaking process.