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WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Persecution, pogroms, and genocide have plagued humanity for centuries, costing millions of lives and haunting survivors. Economists and economic historians have recently made new contributions to the understanding of these phenomena. We provide a novel conceptual framework which highlights the inter-relationship between the intensity of persecution and migration patterns across dozens of historical episodes. Using this framework as a lens, we survey the growing literature on the causes and consequences of persecution, pogroms, and genocide. Finally, we discuss gaps in the literature and take several tentative steps towards explaining the differences in survival rates of European Jews in the 20th century.

Purpose
Chemical adherence testing is a reliable method to assess adherence to antihypertensive drugs. However, it is expensive and has limited availability in clinical practice. To reduce the number and costs of chemical adherence tests, we aimed to develop and validate a clinical screening tool to identify patients with a low probability of non-adherence in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.

Materials and Methods
In 495 patients with uncontrolled hypertension referred to the University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU), the Netherlands, a penalised logistic regression model including seven pre-specified easy-to-measure clinical variables was derived to estimate the probability of non-adherence. Non-adherence was defined as not detecting at least one of the prescribed antihypertensive drugs in plasma or urine. Model performance and test characteristics were evaluated in 240 patients with uncontrolled hypertension referred to the Heartlands Hospital, United Kingdom.

Results
Prevalence of non-adherence to antihypertensive drugs was 19% in the UMCU and 44% in the Heartlands Hospital population. After recalibration of the model's intercept, predicted probabilities agreed well with observed frequencies. The c-statistic of the model was 0.63 (95%CI 0.53–0.72). Predicted probability cut-off values of 15%–22.5% prevented testing in 5%–15% of the patients, carrying sensitivities between 97% (64–100) and 90% (80–95), and negative predictive values between 74% (10–99) and 70% (50–85).

Conclusion
The combination of seven clinical variables is not sufficient to reliably discriminate adherent from non-adherent individuals to safely reduce the number of chemical adherence tests. This emphasises the complex nature of non-adherence behaviour and thus the need for objective chemical adherence tests in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.

A growing number of adversaries are targeting space missions, and as such, there have been increasing academic and industrial efforts in identifying threats and risks through modelling techniques. In parallel, the research communities are collaborating to lower the entry barriers for space activities to deliver more innovative and cost-effective space missions. This evolution has been termed as New Space. However, this transformation of the space ecosystem has led to changes in the threat landscape, introducing new threat vectors and threat actors intent on compromising space systems and missions. As a result, it is expected that cyber threats could increase against space systems. Furthermore, teleoperation, a significant use case for building extraterrestrial habitats, has already been shown vulnerable in other domains as well. For example, teleoperated robots developed for remote surgery have been shown to be vulnerable to threats, such as malicious control due to an elevation-of-privilege attack. Threat modelling is a systematic and structured method to determine associated system vulnerabilities, possible attack entry points and vectors, and potential impacts on the system. In this work, we examine the efficacy of the de facto threat modelling methods such as STRIDE/DREAD in capturing highly adaptive security requirements and threats from a system-centric perspective for the teleoperation mission scenario. Understanding and protecting these hardware-software assets and their interaction in the mission is of foremost importance since security breaches threaten human safety across the broader New Space ecosystem. This research presents the limitations of existing threat modelling approaches in capturing hardware-software interaction in space systems, which is an open area for scientific enquiry. Moreover, research challenges are raised to improve the safety and security of the teleoperation mission. The output of this work can then be used to develop more appropriate threat modelling approaches to support security requirement engineering for different New Space mission scenarios.

Traditional approaches to organizational improvisation treat it as a merely functional response to environmental constrains and unforeseen disruptions, neglecting its moral dimension, especially the valued ends improvisers aim to achieve. We attempt to address this gap by drawing on virtue ethics. In particular, we explore how phronetic improvisation is accomplished by drawing on the diary of an emergency-room physician, in which she describes her (and colleagues') experience of dealing with Covid-19 in a New York Hospital, during the first spike in March–April 2020. We argue that improvisation is phronetic insofar as practitioners actively care for the valued ends of their practice. In particular, practitioners seek to phronetically fulfil the internal goods of their practice, while complying with institutional demands, in the context of coping with situational exigencies. Phronetic improvisation involves paying attention to what is salient in the situation at hand, while informed by an open-ended commitment to valued ends and constrained by scarce resources, and driven by a willingness to meet what is at stake through adapting general knowledge to situational demands. Such an inventive process may involve reshaping the original internal goods of the practice, in light of important institutional constrains.

Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF)/atrial flutter is common during cardiac amyloidosis (CA). Electrical cardioversion (EC) is a strategy to restore sinus rhythm (SR). However, left atrial thrombus (LAT) represents a contraindication for EC. CA patients with AF/atrial flutter have a high prevalence of LAT. We aimed to evaluate EC characteristics, LAT prevalence and risk factors, and AF/atrial flutter outcome in CA patients undergoing EC, predominantly treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Methods and results: All patients with CA and AF/atrial flutter referred for the first time to our national referral centre of amyloidosis for EC from June 2017 to February 2021 were included in this study. In total, 66 patients (median age 74.5 [70;80.75] years, 67% male) were included with anticoagulation consisted of DOAC in 74% of cases. All patients underwent cardiac imaging before EC to rule out LAT. EC was cancelled due to LAT in 14% of cases. Complete thrombus resolution was observed in only 17% of cases. The two independent parameters associated with LAT were creatinine [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01; confidence interval (CI) = 1.00–1.03, P = 0.036] and the use of antiplatelet agents (HR = 13.47; CI = 1.85–98.02). EC acute success rate was 88%, and we observed no complication after EC. With 64% of patients under amiodarone, AF/atrial flutter recurrence rate following EC was 51% after a mean follow‐up of 30 ± 27 months. Conclusions: Left atrial thrombus was observed in 14% of CA patients listed for EC and mainly treated with DOAC. The acute EC success rate was high with no complication. The long‐term EC success rate was acceptable (49%).

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