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Glossary

A

AFLP
A highly sensitive tool used in molecular biology to detect DNA polymorphisms
Arabidopsis

Arabidopsis thaliana also known as thale cress is one of the model organisms used for studying plant biology and the first plant to have its entire genome sequenced. Changes in thale cress are easily observed, making it a very useful model

B

Biosynthesis
Biochemical compounds are produced from simpler reagents

D

Diploid
Diploid (indicated by 2n) cells have two homologous copies of each chromosome, usually one from the mother and one from the father

E

EST
A short sub-sequence of a transcribed cDNA sequence, that can be used to identify gene transcripts, and are instrumental in gene discovery and gene sequence determination
Enzymatic

Catalysed biochemical reactions

F

F7

Seventh/7th generation of breeding

G

Genetic map
A linkage map is a genetic map of a species or experimental population that shows the position of its known genes and/or genetic markers relative to each other in terms of recombination frequency, rather than as specific physical distance along each chromosome

H

Homology
Analagous/same
Homozygous
Homozygous describes a genotype consisting of two identical alleles at a given locus, heterozygous describes a genotype consisting of two different alleles at a locus

L

Linkage map
A linkage map is a genetic map of a species or experimental population that shows the position of its known genes and/or genetic markers relative to each other in terms of recombination frequency, rather than as specific physical distance along each chromosome

M

Metabolites
Metabolites are the intermediates and products of metabolism

O

Organoleptic
Eating attractiveness
Oxidation
Is the gain of oxygen or loss of electrons or hydrogen

P

Peroxidases
Enzymes which catlyse reactions where hydrogen peroxide is the substrate
Phenotype
Any observable characteristic or trait of an organism
Phenylpropanoid pathway
Secondary metabolic pathway producing antioxidants
Polyphenols
Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. Polyphenols are generally divided into hydrolyzable tannins (gallic acid esters of glucose and other sugars) and phenylpropanoids, such as lignins, flavonoids, and condensed tannins

Q

QTL
QTL/Quantitative trait loci relates to the inheritance of quantitative traits or polygenic inheritance which refers to the inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic that varies in degree and can be attributed to the interactions between two or more genes and their environment. Though not necessarily genes themselves, QTLs are stretches of DNA that are closely linked to the genes that underlie the trait in question

R

RILs
RILS/recombinant inbred lines are genetically stable individuals which have been produced be crossing two inbred organisms followed by selfing

S

Synergistic
Different entities cooperate advantageously for a final outcome

W

WHRI
WHRI/Warwick HRI is a department at the University of Warwick for plant and crop science