- Degrees: BA, DPhil, Oxon
- Member: Warwick History Department (Ass. Lecturer, Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, 1966-2001, Reader 2001, Professor 2006, Emeritus Professor, 2007)
- Visiting Professor: Chiba University, Tokyo, 1989
- Member: European Science Foundation Research Projects on Government and Non-dominant Ethnic Groups in Europe, 1850-1940 (1984-88) and on National History (2004-08),
- External Examiner: Aberystwyth; Bangor; Oxford; University College London, School of Slavonic and East European Studies
- Fellow: The Welsh Academy
From Feudalism to Communism: Eastern Europe from 1780; Eastern Europe since 1918 (Options); Nationalism (Advanced Option); Eastern Europe in Crisis, 1939-48 (Special Subject); Nationalism in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia since c. 1880 (MA Module)
Eastern Europe 1740-1980. Feudalism to Communism (London, 1982) 256pp. Second, extended edition, published as Eastern Europe 1740-1985 (London, 1986) 283pp. Japanese translation, Tokyo, 1987.
The Habsburg Monarchy c. 1765-1918. From Enlightenment to Eclipse (London, November 2000) 456pp. (Japanese translation, Tokyo, 20
The Demise of Communism in East Europe, 1989 in Context (London, 2004). 230pp.
Taming Balkan Nationalism. The Habsburg’ Civilizing Mission’ in Bosnia, 1878-1914 (Oxford, 2007) xvi & 346 pp.
SHORTER STUDIES, ARTICLES, BOOK CHAPTERS
- `Yugoslavia - the Background to Cultural Policy’, Planet, 20 (1973), 41-48.
- `Records of Popular Consciousness’, Planet, 40 (1977), 11-15.
- The Lessons of Yugoslavia. Industrial Democracy for Wales (Aberystwyth, 1980). 30pp.
- `Working Class Movements and Nations: Towards a Typology’, Journal of Area Studies (1982), 19-25.
- Cymru a’r Byd Modern (Wales and the Modern World) (Aberystwyth, 1986). 26pp.
- `The Minorities Concept. Definitions and Variants,’ Proceedings of the International Conference on Publishing in Minority Languages, July 1985 (Aberystwyth, 1987), 1-21.
- `The First Welsh Language Society,’ Planet, 58 (1986), 90-96.
- `Plausible perspectives: The new Welsh historiography’, Planet, 73 (1989), 31-38.
- Crisis in Eastern Europe. Roots and Prospects (London, 1990). 23 pp.
- `Problems of Schooling in Austro-Hungarian Bosnia, 1878-1914: Cultural Mission and Slav Nationalism’, in V. Karády and W. Mitter (eds) Bildungswesen und Sozialstruktur in Mitteleuropa im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert/Education and Social Structure in Central Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries, (Cologne, Vienna, 1990), 41-63.
- `Education and Nationhood in Wales, 1850-1940’ in J.J. Tomiak (ed) in collaboration with K.E. Erikson, A Kazamias and R F C Okey, Schooling, Educational Policy and Ethnic Identity, 1850-1940 (Comparative Studies on Governments and Non-dominant Ethnic Groups in Europe, 1850-1940, vol 1) (London and New York, 1991), 35-62.
- Education and Modernisation in a Multi-Ethnic Society’, Bosnia, 1850-1914 in ibid., 319-62.
- ‘Iaith ac addysg mewn cenhedloedd di-wladwriaeth yn Ewrop, 1800-1918’ (Language and education in stateless European nations, 1800-1914) in P. Morgan (ed.), Brad y Llyfrau Gleision (The Treason of the Blue Books) (Llandysul, 1991), 201-22.
- ‘The Slavonic Liturgy in Austro-Hungarian Diplomacy, 1881-1914’, The Slavonic and East European Review, 70, no. 2 (1992), 258-83.
- `State, Church and Nation in the Serbo-Croat speaking lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1850-1914’, in D. Kerr (ed.) Confession and Nationality in Europe, 1850-1940 (Comparative Studies on Government and Non-dominant Ethnic Groups in Europe, 1850-1940, vol 2) (London and New York, 1992), 51-78.
- `Central Europe/Eastern Europe. Behind the Definitions’, Past and Present, 137 (November 1992), 102-33.
- `Britain, Eastern Europe and the European Community since the Revolutions of 1989’, in New Developments in East European Societies and European Integration (Tokyo, 1994), 193-205. In Japanese.
- ‘Austria-Hungary and the South Slavs' in Ritchie Robinson and Edward Timms (eds), The Habsburg Legacy. National Identity in Historical Perspective (London, 1994), 46-57.
- `The Historical Background to the Yugoslav Crisis’, Journal of Area Studies (1994), 124-38.
- `East European Peasant Societies and National Integration - The Communist Impact', in S. Minamizuka (ed.), The Transformation of the Systems of East-Central European Rural Societies before and after 1989 (Kecskemét, Hungary, 1996), 109-24.
- `Social Relations in an Islamic City: Eighteenth-Century Sarajevo', in S. Minamizuka (ed.), Cities in the 18th Comparison between European and Japanese Cities (Chiba, 1999), 79-92.
- `The Legacy of Massacre: the “Jasenovac Myth” and the Breakdown of Communist Yugoslavia' in Mark Levene and Penny Roberts (eds), The Massacre in History (New
- York, Oxford, 1999), 263-282.
- 'Lesser-Used Languages and Linguistic Minorities in Europe since 1918: An Overview' in Geraint H. Jenkins and Mari A. Williams (eds), Let's Do Our Best for the Ancient Tongue . The Welsh Language in the Twentieth Century (University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 2000), 627-56.
- 'A Trio of Hungarian Balkanists: Béni Kállay, István Burián and Lajos Thallóczy in the Age of High Nationalism', The Slavonic and East European Review, 80, no. 2 (2002), 234-66.
- 'British Impressions of the Serbo-Croat Speaking Lands of the Habsburg Monarchy. Reports to the Foreign Office, 1867-1908' in Robert Evans et al (eds), Great Britain and Central Europe 1867-1914 (VEDA, Bratislava, 2002), 61-76.
- ‘Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian? Language and Nationality in the Lands of Former Yugoslavia’, East European Quarterly 38, no. 4 (Winter 2004), 419-42.
- ‘1989 and its Aftermath: The Liberal Dimension’, in S Minamizuka (ed.), Legacies of Socialism. Transformation of East-Central Europe. (Tokyo, 2005), 129-44.
- ‘A Comment on Teodora Shek Brnardić’s Paper’, East Central Europe. L’Europe du Centre-Est. Eine wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift, 32 (2005), 1-2, 179-90.
- ‘The Neue Freie Presse and the South Slavs, 1867-1914’, The Slavonic and East European Review, 85, no. 1 (2007), 79-104.
- ‘Wales and Eastern Europe: Small Nations in Comparison’, in T. M. Charles-Edwards and R. W. J. Evans (eds), Wales and the Wider World. Welsh History in an International Context (Donnington, 2010; 184-217.
- ‘Overlapping National Historiographies in Bosnia-Herzegovina’, in T. Frank & F. Hadler (eds), Disputed Territories and Shared Pasts. Overlapping National Historiographies in Modern Europe (Basingstoke, 2011), 349—72. Vol. 4 of the European Science Foundation series ‘Writing the Nation’ ed. by Stefan Berger.
- ‘Religija, jezik in narodnost: primer modernega Walesa’ Zgodovinski časopis, 66 (2012), 116-43.
- ‘The Catholic Church and Bosnian Muslims under Austro-Hungarian Occupation’, Römische Historische Mitteilungen, 54 (2012), 433-50.
- ‘Echoes and Precedents. 1989 in Historical Perspective’, in K. Macdermott and M. Stibbe eds, The 1989 Revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe (Manchester and New York, 2013), 33-54.
- ‘The Primary School Movement in the South Slav Lands of the Habsburg Monarchy in the Era of Dualism. Ideal and Reality’, Godišnjak. Centar za balkanološka ispitivanja, knj. 42 (2014), 147-64.
- ‘Iaith, Crefydd a Chenedligrwydd yng Nghymru a Slofenia, c.1750-1918: Rhai Syniadau’, Y Traethodydd, clxx (2015), 15-27.
- ‘British Historians and the Habsburg Monarchy (1500-1918)’, Zgodovinski časopis, 74 (2020), 146-174.
- ‘Mlada Bosna: The Educational and Cultural Context’, in Mark Cornwall, (ed.), Srajevo 1914 (London, New (London, New York, 2020), 102-121.
Reviews in Journals:
American Historical Review; Church History, Democratization; English Historical Review; European History Quarterly; European Studies Review; German History; History; History Workshop Journal; Journal of Area Studies; Journal of Communist Studies; Journal of Modern History; Planet; Political Studies; Slavic Review; The Slavonic and East European Review, Welsh History Review.
Papers given abroad: In Bratislava, Budapest, Geneva, Gorizia, Montreal, Oslo, Sarajevo, Tokyo, Vienna, Warsaw.
The major field of my research has been modern central and eastern Europe with some concentration on relations between the Habsburg monarchy and the south Slavs. A secondary interest has been in European minority peoples in the west and east of the continent. Currently, I am working on a comparison between the development of the Slovenes and the Welsh as small nations between the Enlightenment and 1914.