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Politics in the Age of Anne

Politics in the Age of Anne

Chronology (Tories are underlined)

1702  
March Death of William III
April-May Anne’s first ministry formed under Godolphin (Lord Treasurer) and Marlborough. Includes 9 Tories and only 3 moderate Whigs
May Declaration of war on France and Spain
1703  
January Occasional Conformity bill amended in Lords and dropped
December Second Occasional Conformity bill defeated in Lords
1704  
April Fall of High Tory ministers - Nottingham, Seymour and Jersey.
  Harley and St John (Bolingbroke) enter cabinet
October Attempt to ‘tack’ third Occasional Conformity bill to Land Tax bill defeated in Commons by ministry and Whigs
December Godolphin saved from censure by Whig peers. Third
  Occasional Conformity bill defeated in Lords
1705  
March Aliens Act - exerted pressure on Scotland to join union
April Newcastle replaces Buckingham as Lord Privy Seal
May General election: Whig gains leave parties equal in Commons
October Cowper replaces Wright as Lord Keeper. Smith elected Speaker after contest with Bromley
1706  
March Regency Act - provides for an interim administration after death of Anne
July Treaty of Union with Scotland concluded
December Sunderland replaces Hedges as Secretary of State, first member of Whig Junto in cabinet since 1700
1707  
March Act of Union
May-October Rift between Junto and ministry over rewards due to Whigs for their support
1708  
February Resignation of Harleyites: Boyle replaces Harley St. John and Walpole
May General election. Clear Whig majority
November Somers and Wharton, Junto members enter cabinet
1709  
November Sacheverell sermon. Last Tory in cabinet, Pembroke, resigns
1710  
January Marlborough threatens to resign over influence of Anne’s new favourite, Mrs Masham
March Sacheverell trial
April Shrewsbury replaces Kent as Lord Chamberlain
June Dartmouth replaces Sunderland as Secretary of State
August Godolphin dismissed. Harley, Poulet and Anglesey enter cabinet
September Fall of Whigs: Boyle, Somers, Devonshire, Orford, Cowper and Wharton dismissed/resigned. Rochester, St John and Buckingham enter cabinet
October General election. Overwhelming victory for Tories. Harcourt and Ormonde enter cabinet
1711  
February Tory October club members campaign in Commons against moderation of Harley. Bill imposing landed qualification passed
March Attempt to assassinate Harley. Ways and Means obstructed by October Tories
May South Sea bill passed. Harley created Earl of Oxford.
September Bishop Robinson succeeds Newcastle. No Whigs remain in cabinet
December Whig peers defeat ministry on its policy of ‘Peace without Spain’, resolved by creation of 12 Tory peers and dismissal of Marlborough
1712  
January Marlborough and Walpole censured by Commons for alleged peculation (embezzlement)
June-July Most Whigs remaining in civil office dismissed
October Cabinet clash between Oxford and Bolingbroke
1713  
March Peace treaties between Britain and France signed
May-June Crisis over Malt Tax and Union
August-September Oxford defeats Bolingbroke in struggle for control over Ministry. Bromley and Mar appointed to cabinet. General Election, Whigs defeated heavily in England, gain ground in Scotland
1714  
April Both Houses vote that Protestant succession not in danger
June Schism bill passes through Lords
July Oxford dismissed. Shrewsbury succeeds him
August Death of Anne. Elector of Hanover proclaimed as George I.
  Government by regency. Bolingbroke dismissed
September George I arrives in England. First administration dominated by Whigs

Summary

A consensus view has emerged over the last 20 years about politics in the Age of Anne - the period was dominated by party politics and party strife. Four factors help establish this trend: a) the monarch; b) the Triennial Act c) party conflict in the country and d) conflict in the Church

Parties

The last parliament of William’s reign ushered in this ‘rage of party’: Whig Junto ministers were impeached; the Grand Alliance split the parties; the Act of Settlement highlighted Tory anxieties; the Pretender was declared King James III of England and VIII of Scotland

Queen Anne

Anne made great use of managers in her relations with party and parliament: firstly to Godolphin and Marlborough and later to Harley and to a lesser extent Shrewsbury. Signified the growing influence of Parliament. Anne was also influenced by favourites, notably Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough and Mrs Abigail Masham, but their influence is more mythical than actual.

Course of Politics

Anne’s reign falls into 2 phases: the first from 1702-10 dominated by Marlborough-Godolphin alliance. The latter, 1710-14 by Robert Harley.

The first was dominated by foreign policy and the War of the Spanish Succession. Suffered party pressure from the High Tories, the Whigs and moderate Tories led by Harley. Major domestic pieces of legislation were the Regency Act, the Act of Union. Godolphin brought down by public disquiet about the war and the Sacheverell crisis.

1710-1714 marks the end of the Tories as an effective force in Parliament for at least 45 years. However, during that period they win overwhelming majorities in 2 elections, negotiate a popular peace treaty and tackle the natural Whig majority in the Lords by the creation of Tory peers. They are largely destroyed from within. The October Club, a backbench organisation puts forward a mass of legislation, the leadership of Harley faces a successful challenge from Bolingbroke, the party alienates the future George I and begins negotiations with the Pretender. Even before the death of Anne, the party is hopelessly and fatally divided.