During the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries the ideal of father as breadwinner has dominated understandings of the family economy. However, in reality, many families relied on all members of the family contributing to the family economy and they did so in various ways. Women and children contributed to the family income through their labour both inside and outside the home, with traditional means such as growing vegetables, taking in laundry and domestic service both continuing and being augmented by the increasing opportunities for paid labour.Seminar/Essay Questions:
- How did the family adapt to industrialisation?
- In what ways have the different members of the family contributed to the family economy during the 20th century?
- Is the family a social or economic unit?
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