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Granada conquered from the Moors. Columbus reaches the New World.

1494 Charles VIII of France invades Italy.
  Sixteenth Century
1517 Luther posts 95 Theses.
1519 Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor.
1520 Luther excommunicated by Leo X. Revolt of the Communeros in Castile.
1521 Luther condemned by Diet of Worms.
1522 Turks capture Rhodes from Knights of St John.
1523 Union of Kalmar betwen Denmark and Sweden dissolves. Gustav Vasa becomes King of Sweden.
1524 Start of German Peasant's War.
1525 Deafeat of Peasants. Francis I of France defeated and captured by Charles V at Battle of Pavia.

Sack of Rome by Imperial troops. Henry VIII begins to seek divroce from Katherine of Aragon.

1529 Turks (unsuccessfully) besige Vienna. Peace of Cambrai confirms Imperial dominance in Italy. Luther and Zwingli fail to resolve differences over eucharist at Marburg. Diet of Speyer gives birth to the word 'Protestants'.
1530 Statement of Lutheran belief in Confession of Augsburg. League of Schmalkalden formed against Charles V.
1531 Death of Zwingli. Ferdinand elected King of the Romans (heir to Emperor).
1533 Act of Appeals in England marks Break with Rome.
1535 Defeat of Anabaptist rule in Münster.
1536 Publication of Calvin's Institutes. Reformation in Geneva.
1540 Foundation of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
1542 Re-establishment of Roman Inquisition.
1545 Opening of the Council of Trent.
1546 Death of Luther. War between Charles V and Schmalkaldic League.
1547 Charles defeats Schmalkaldic League at Battle of Mühlberg. Death of Henry VIII. Accession of Edward VI and radical phase of English Reformation.
1548 Charles imposes Interim of Augsburg.
1551 German Lutheran Princes (League of Torgau) joined by Maurice of Saxony and Henry II of France against Charles V. Second Session of Trent.
1553 Death of Edward VI and accession of Mary I. Catholic restoration in England.
1555 Peace of Augsburg between Charles V and Lutherans in Germany.
1556 Abdication of Charles V: succeeded by son Philip in Spain an Netherlands, and by Ferdinand as Emperor, Franco-Papal war against Philip II.
1558 French take Calais. Death of Mary I and accession of Elizabeth I.
1559 Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis ends Italian Wars. Death of Henry II. Protestant settlement in England.
1562 Outbreak of French Wars of Religion. Last session of Trent.
1563 End of Council of Trent.
1564 Death of Calvin.
1566 'Iconoclastic fury' in the Netherlands. Death of Suleyman the Magnificent.
1567 Outbreak of Dutch Revolt.
1571 Turkish fleet defeated at Lepanto by Holy League (Papacy, Venice, Spain).
1572 Massacre of St. Bartholomew.
1580 Spanish invasion of Portugal.
1581 States General in Netherlands renounces sovereignty of Philip II.
1584 Assassination of William of Orange.
1585 English intervention in Dutch Revolt.
1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.
1588 Spanish Armada against England.
1589 Assassination of Henry III of France. Accession of (Protestant) Henry IV.
1593 Henry IV converts to Catholicism.
1598 Edict of Nantes ends the Wars of Religion in France.
  Seventeenth Century
1602 Dutch East India Company formed.
1603 Death of Elizabeth I and accession of James IV of Scotland as James I.
1604 Peace between England and Spain.
1609 Twelve Years Truce between Spain and United Provinces ends the Dutch Revolt.
1610 Assassination of Henry IV of France and accession of (minor) Louis XIII.
1618 Outbreak of Bohemian rebellion against Ferdinand - start of Thirty Years War.
1619 Bohemian estates depose Ferdinand as King and elect (Protestant) Frederick of the Palatinate.
1620 Bohemian rebellion crushed by Imperialist victory at Battle of the White Mountain.
1621 Renewed war between Spain and Dutch.
1622 Olivares becomes chief minister to Philip IV of Spain.
1624 Richelieu becomes chief minister to Louis XIII.
1625 Death of James I and accession of Charles I in England.
1630 Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden invades Germany.
1632 Gustavus killed at Battle of Lützen.
1633 Galileo's views condemned by Catholic Church.
1634 Defeat of Swedish army at Nördlingen by Spanish-Imperial army.
1635 France declares war on Spain.
1637 Charles I attempts to impose Prayer Book on Scotland - Bishops Wars are the result.
1640 Catalonia and Portugal rebel against Spain. Parliament called by Charles I.
1642 Death of Richelieu. Outbreak of Civil War in England.
1643 Dismissal of Olivares. French victory over Spanish at Rocroi. Death of Louis XIII and minority of Louis XIV.
1648 Peace of Münster between Spain and Dutch. Treaty of Westphalia ends Thirty Years War. OUtbreak of the Fronde in France against rule of Mazarin.
1649 Execution of Charles I. England declared a Commonwealth. The Diggers gather at St. George's Hill.
1651 Majority of Louis XIV. Hobbes' Leviathan published.
1653 End of the Fronde. Cromwell becomes Lord Protector.
1658 Death of Cromwell.
1659 Peace of the Pyrenees between France and Spain.
1660 Restoration of monarchy in England under Charles II.
1661 Death of Mazarin. Colbert becomes leading minister.
1672 Franco-Dutch war.
1678 'Popish Plot' in England.
1679 Exclusion Crisis in England.
1682 Accession of Peter I (the Great) in Russia. French court moves to Versailles.
1683 Turkish seige of Vienna (unsuccessful).
1685 Death of Charles II and accession of James II. Monmouth Rebellion against James. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France.
1686 Formation of League of Augsburg against Louis XIV.
1688 James II deposed by William of Orange in 'Glorious Revolution'. Frederick III becomes Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia.
1689 Peter the Great takes power in Russia. England joins war on France. Locke publishes Two Treatise.
1690 James II defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.
1697 Treaty of Rijswick ends war against Louis XIV. Charles XII becomes king of Sweden. Peter the Great's Grand Embassy to the West.
1698 Partition Treaty divides the Spanish Empire.
  Eighteenth Century
1700 Outbreak of Great Northern War.
1701 Outbreaks of War of Spanish Succession.
1707 Act of Union between England and Scotland.
1709 Russian victory over Swedes at Poltava.
1714 House of Hanover succeeds to British throne.
1715 Death of Louis XIV and accession of Louix XV.
1721 Treaty of Nystad ends Great Northern War.
1725 Death of Peter the Great.
1733 Outbreak of War of Polish Succession.
1740 Outbreak of War of Austrian Sucession. Maria Theresa ascends the throne. Frederick II 'the Great' becomes king of Brandenburg-Prussia.

Publication of Spirit of the Laws by Montesquieu.

1751 First publication of the Encyclopédie.
1755 Lisbon earthquake.
1756 Outbreak of Seven Years War.