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Week 1: Lecture 10: Jewish life in Eastern Europe, Seminar: And what about the Jews...?

What was the 'Jewish question' at the end of the 19th century?

Which options were available?

What were the reasons for pogroms?

How did Jewish society react to anti-Semitism and pogroms?

Essential reading

Theodore R. Weeks, ‘Poles, Jews, and Russians, 1863-1914: The Death of Assimilation in the Kingdom of Poland’, in Focusing on Galicia: Jews, Poles, and Ukrainians, 1772-1918, ed. by Yisrael Bartel and Antony Polonsky (Oxford, 2009), pp. 242-256 (electronic resource, library)

John-Paul Himka, ‘Dimensions of a Triangle: Polish-Ukrainian-Jewish Relations in Austrian Galicia’, in Focusing on Galicia, pp. 25-48 (electronic resource, library)

Stefan Wiese, '"Spit Back with Bullets!" Emotions in Russia's Jewish Pogroms, 1881-1905', Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 39 (2013), 472-501

Anita Shapira, 'Anti-Semitism and Zionism', Modern Judaism, 15 (1995), pp. 215-232

And if possible:

Benjamin Nathans, Beyond the Pale: The Jewish Encounter with late Imperial Russia (Berkeley, 2002) (chapter 1: pp. 23-44) (electronic resource, library)

Additional reading

Monty Noam Penkower, 'The Kishinev Pogrom of 1903: A Turning Point in Jewish History', Modern Judaism, 24 (2004), pp. 187-225

Inna Shtakser, The Making of Jewish Revolutionaries in the Pale of Settlement: Community and Identity during the Russian Revolution and its immediate Aftermath, 1905-1907 (London, 2014)

Joshua Zimmermann, Poles, Jews, and the Politics of Nationality: the Bund and the Polish Socialist Party in late tsarist Russia, 1892-1914 (University of Wisconsin Press, 2004)

Yaacoov Ray, Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union (Ifferd, 1995)

Heinz Dietrich Löwe, The Tsars and the Jews: Reform, Reaction, and Anti-Semitism in imperial Russia, 1772-1917 (Chur, Reading, 1993)

Joshua Shanes, Diaspora Nationalism and Jewish Identity in Habsburg Galicia (Cambridge, 2012)

Roman Wapinski, ‘The Endencja and the Jewish Question’, in Focusing on Galicia, pp. 271-283