- How do we define a Nation and nationalism? what were the pecularities of Greman nationalism?
- What groups, forces or individuals drove the process of unification? Did these alter over time?
- How did Germany’s path to nation state differ from other European states?
- John Breuilly, "Nationalism and National Unification in Nineteenth-Century Europe" in John Breuilly (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Nationalism (OUP, 2013).
- Helmut Walser Smith, "Nation and Nationalism" in Jonathan Sperber (ed.), Germany 1800-1871 (OUP, 2004), pp. 230-255
- Siegfried Weichlein, "Nation State, Conflict Resolution, and Culture War, 1850–1878" in Helmut Walser Smith (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Modern German History (OUP, 2012).
- Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Addresses to the German Nation (1807-8)
- Ernst Moritz Arndt, "The German Fatherland" (1813)
- "Germany's Unification" (1843)
- Excerpt from Bismarck's "Blood and Iron" Speech (1862)
- The National Association on a German Constitution (1860)
- 1848: Year of Revolutions (Podcast) - discussion by leading historians; a general introduction (not just about Germany)
- B. Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism (2006)
- Margaret L. Anderson, Practicing Democracy: Elections and Political Culture in Imperial Germany (Princeton UP, 2000).
- Discussion between Margaret Lavinia Anderson and Volker Berghahn in Central European History 35,1 (2002).
- Celia Applegate, A Nation of Provincials: The German Idea of Heimat (Univ. of California Press, 1991)
- _____________, "How German Is It? Nationalism and the Idea of Serious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century," 19th-Century Music, 21 (Spring 1998), pp. 274-97.
- S. Berger, The Search for Normality: National Identity and Historical Consciousness in Germany since 1800 (1997)
- David Blackbourn, A History of Germany, 1780-1918: The Long Nineteenth Century (OUP, 2003), pp.35-234
- David Blackbourn and Geoff Eley, The Peculiarities of German history: Bourgeois Society and Politics in Nineteenth-century Germany (OUP, 1984)
- John Breuilly, Austria, Prussia and the Making of Germany, 1806-1871 (Palgrave, 2011)
- __________, Nationalism, power and modernity in nineteenth-century Germany (2007)
- Arden Bucholz, Moltke and the German Wars, 1864-1871 (Palgrave, 2002)
- W. Carr, The Origins of the Wars of German Unification (1991)
- R. Chickering, We Men Who Feel Most German: A Cultural Study of the Pan-German League, 1886-1914 (1984)
- Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom: the Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600-1947 (Allen Lane, 2006)
- W. Conze, The Shaping of the German Nation (1979)
- G.A. Craig, Germany 1866-1945 (1999), pts I & II
- Jost Hermand, "On the History of the 'Deutschlandlied', in Celia Applegate and Pamela Potter (eds.), Music and National Identity (The University of Chicago Press, 2002): 251-268.
- Mark Hewitson, Nationalism in Germany, 1848-1866 (2010)
- R.M. Lepsius, 'The Nation and Nationalism in Germany', Social Research, Vol. 71, No. 3 (2004), pp. 42-64
- G.L. Mosse, 'Friendship and Nationhood: About the Promise and Failure of German Nationalism', Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 17, No. 2 (1982), pp. 351-67
- James Retallack, Imperial Germany 1871-1918 (Oxford UP, 2008), pp. 18-50, 61-81, 151-95.
- Angelika Schaser, 'The Challenge of Gender: National Historiography, Nationalism, and National Identities' in Karen Hagemann and Jean H. Quataert (eds.), Gendering modern German history : rewriting historiography (Berghahn, 2007), pp. 39-62
- H. Schulze, The Course of German Nationalism (1991)
- H. Schulze (ed.), Nation-Building in Central Europe (1987)
- Jonathan Sperber (ed.), Germany 1800-1871 (OUP, 2004)
- R. Spiers & J. Breuilly, Germany's two unifications : anticipations, experiences, responses (2005)