- Did mass unemployment shift voters to the left or right? (What was the social, religious and regional background of Nazi supporters?)
- Why did so many parties resort to paramilitary ‘street’ politics?
- Were either big business or the army instrumental in helping Hitler to power?
V. Berghahn Modern Germany, pp. 102-28
W. Carr A History of Germany 1815-1990, ch. 12
G.A. Craig Germany 1866-1945, ch. XV
I. Kershaw (ed.) Weimar: Why Did German Democracy Fail?
E. Kolb The Weimar Republic, pp. 96-126 & 179-96
A.J. Nicholls Weimar and the Rise of Hitler, pp. 120-61
D. Peukert The Weimar Republic, pp. 247-72
K. Borchardt Perspectives on Modern German Economic History
W.S. Allen The Nazi Seizure of Power
R. Bessel Political Violence and the Rise of Nazism
M. Broszat Hitler and the Collapse of Weimar Germany, esp. section 2.3
T. Childers (ed .) The Formation of the Nazi Constituency 1919-1933, esp. ch. 6, 9 & 10
________ The Nazi Voter. The Social Foundations of Fascism
C. Fischer Stormtroopers
R.F. Hamilton Who Voted for Hitler?
R. McKibbin ‘The Myth of the Unemployed: Who Did Vote for Hitler?’, Australian Jnl of Pol & Hist, 1969
*J. Noakes/GP Nazism 1919-1945, vol. 1
C.J. Fischer The German Communists and the Rise of Nazism, ch.6-9
________ ‘Unemployment and Left-wing Radicalism in Weimar Germany, 1930-1933’, in P. Stachura (ed.), Unemp-loyment and the Great Depression in Weimar Germany
B. Fowkes Communism in Germany under the Weimar Republic ch7-8
D. Geary ‘Employers, Workers and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic’ (esp. second half thereof), in Ian Kershaw (ed.), Weimar: Why Did German Democracy Fail?
E. Rosenhaft Beating the Fascists?
________ ‘Working-class Life and Working-class Politics: Communists, Nazis and the State in the Battle for the Streets’, in R. Bessel/EJF (eds), Social Change and Political Development in the Weimar Republic
The Machtergreifung Army
F.L. Carsten The Reichswehr and Politics 1918 to 1933, esp. pt. 3
G.A. Craig The Politics of the Prussian Army 1640-1945, pt. XI
M. Geyer ‘Etudes in Political History: Reichswehr, NSDAP, and the Seizure of Power’, in P. Stachura (ed.), The Nazi Machtergreifung
P. Hayes ‘A Question-Mark with Epaulettes? Kurt v. Schleicher & Weimar Politics’, Jnl Mod Hist 1980
R.J. O’Neill The German Army and the Nazi Party, ch. 1
D. Abraham The Collapse of the Weimar Republic
*D. Geary ‘The Industrial Elite and the Nazis’, in P. Stachura (ed), Nazi Machtergreifung
L.E. Jones ‘“The Greatest Stupidity of My Life”: Alfred Hugenberg and the Formation of the Hitler Cabinet, January 1933’, JCH 27 (1992)
F. Thyssen I Paid Hitler
* H. Turner German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler