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'The Troubles':Northern Ireland 1968-1998 - theme 3

Political Violence and the paramilitaries
Adams, Gerry, Extract from Before the Dawn: An Autobiography (London, 1996).
Extracts from the Green Book, IRA Training Manual.
UVF Recruiting Circular

What were the main phases in both republican and loyalist political violence during ‘the troubles’?
How can we explain the fragmentation that occurred within loyalist and nationalist groups?
What is the relationship between politics and violence?
How is violence legitimated?
What are the differences between Republican and Loyalist violence?
Can the IRA only preserve republican unity through the use of violence?
To what extent were unionist paramilitary groups reactive; republican groups proactive?
What provided the impetus for the revitalisation of the IRA?
What factors altered PIRA attitudes to electoral politics?
How did Loyalist paramilitaries legitimise their violence?
What is the nature and impact of pro-state terrorism?
How politically constructive have paramilitaries been in Northern Ireland?
What tactics and strategies have been used by paramilitary groups in the North of Ireland?
Aughey, Arthur, 1985, ‘Between exclusion and recognition: the politics of the Ulster Defence Association’, Conflict Quarterly,1, pp.40-52.
Aughey, A. and C. McIlheney, 1984, ‘Law before violence? – the Protestant paramilitaries in Ulster politics’, Eire/Ireland, 19, pp. 55-74.
Bean, K., (1995), ‘The New Departure? Recent Developments in Republican Strategy
and Ideology’, Irish Studies Review, 10, pp 2-6.
Boulton, David, (1973), The U.V.F., 1966-1973, Dublin.
Bowyer, Bell, J., (1979), The Secret Army: The IRA 1916-1979, Dublin.
Bruce, Steve, (1992), The Red Hand: Protestant Paramilitaries in Northern Ireland,
Oxford. Extract available on
Coogan, T. P., (1993), The IRA, London.
English, Richard, Armed Struggle: A History of the IRA (London, 2003).
Guelke, A., (1999), ‘Political violence and the paramilitaries’, in Mitchell, P. and R.
Wilford (eds.), Politics in Northern Ireland, Oxford, pp. 29-52.
Nelson, Sarah, (1984), Ulster's Uncertain Defenders: Protestant Political,
Paramilitary and Community Groups and the Northern Ireland Conflict, Belfast.
Patterson, Henry, 1989, The Politics of Illusion, London, chapter 4.
Smith, M.L.R., (1995), Fighting for Ireland: The Military Strategy of the Irish
Republican Movement, London, chapter 4.
Smyth, Jim, 1989, ‘A discredited cause? The I R A and support for political
violence’, in Y. Alexander and A.O’Day (eds.), The Dynamics and Limits of
Terrorism, pp.101-123.
Taylor, Peter, (1999) Loyalists, London.
Taylor, Peter, (1998) Provos, London.
Toolis, Kevin (1995), ‘Inside the I. R. A.’, The Guardian, February 16-17.
Toolis, K., Rebel Hearts; Journeys Within the IRA’s Soul, London.