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seminars

Each week we will create a supplementary reading list during class which will then be updated on the website after the seminar.

Term 1

Week 1. Attitudes towards children in life and death: introduction and overview

Key readings: Philippe Ariès (1996) Centuries of Childhood; and Linda Pollock (1983) Forgotten Children: Parent-Child Relations from 1500 to 1900 (extracts to be provided in the seminar).

Seminar/essay questions: How did ideas about childhood change during the period 1860-2000? Have parents always loved their children?

Supplementary reading: Mary Abbott (2003) Family Affairs; David Archard (2015) Children: Rights and Childhood; Hugh Cunningham (2006) The Invention of Childhood; Leonore Davidoff et al (1999) The Family Story; P. Fass (ed.) (2004) Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society. 3 vols.; E. Foyster and J. Marten (eds.) (2010) A Cultural History of Childhood and Family. 6 vols; Colin Heywood (2001) A History of Childhood: Children and Childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times; J.E. Illick (2002) American Childhoods; D.A. Kertzer and M. Barbagli (eds.) (2001-3) The History of the European Family. 3 vols; Mary Jo Maynes and Ann Waltner (2012) The Family; David Peterson del Mar (2011) The American Family; Michael Peplar (2002) Family Matters; Silvia Sovic, Pat Thane and Pier Paolo Viazzo (2016) The History of Families and Households; Mathew Thomson (2013) Lost Freedom; Deborah Weinstein (2013) The Pathological Family.

Week 2. Planned parenthood: children and fertility trends, 1860-2000

Key readings: David S. Reher (2013) 'Demographic Transitions and Familial Change: Comparative International Perspectives', in Buchanan and Rotkirch, Fertility Rates and Population Decline; and Simon Szreter (2005) 'The Idea of Demographic Transition and the Study of Fertility Change: A Critical Intellectual History', in Szreter, Health and Wealth: Studies in History and Policy.

Supplementary reading: Philippe Aries (1980) ‘Two Successive Motivations for the Declining Birth Rate in the West’ Population and Development Review 6:4 645-650; Laura Bernardi (2013) ‘From mothers to daughters’ in Ellingsater, Jensen and Lie, The social meaning of children and fertility change in Europe; John B. Casterline (ed) (2001) Diffusion processes and fertility transition: selected perspectives; E.M. Crimmins and Y. Saito (2001) ‘Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970-1990: gender, racial, and educational differences’ Soc Sci Med 52:11 1629-41; Kate Fisher (2000) ‘She Was Quite Satisfied with the Arrangements I Made': Gender and Birth Control in Britain 1920-1950’ Past & Present 169 161-193; David Grigg (1980) Population growth and agrarian change: an historical perspective; Jonathan Grant, Stijn Hoorens et al (2006) ‘Trends in European fertility: should Europe try to increase its fertility rate...or just manage the consequences?’ International Journal of Andrology 29:1 17-24; Sarah Harper (2013) ‘Falling Fertility, Ageing and Europe’s Demographic Deficit’ in Reher, Fertility Rates and Population Decline; John Haskey (2014) ‘Cohabitation and births outside marriage after 1970: A rapidly evolving phenomenon’ in Probert, Cohabitation and non-marital births in England and Wales, 1600-2012; Ronald Lee (2003) ‘The Demographic Transition: Three Centuries of Fundamental Change’ Journal of Economic Perspectives 17:4 167-90; Jesús J. Sánchez-Barricarte (2017) ‘Mortality–fertility synergies during the demographic transition in the developed world’ Population Studies 71:2 155-170; Alexandra Minna Stern (2005) 'Sterilized in the Name of Public Health' American Journal of Public Health 95:7 1128-1138; Christopher Tietze (1965) ‘History of contraceptive methods’ Journal of Sex Research 1:2 69-85; R.I. Woods (1987) ‘Approaches to the Fertility Transition in Victorian England’ Population Studies 41:2 283-311; Batool Zaidi and S. Philip Morgan (2017) ‘The Second Demographic Transition Theory: A Review and Appraisal’ Annual Review of Sociology 43 473-492.

Seminar/essay questions: Why did fertility decline from the 1870s? Who was responsibile for controlling fertility, women, men or both?

Week 3. Extended, nuclear and single-parent families: changing family structures, 1860-2000

Key readings: Rebecca Probert and Samantha Callan (2011) 'History and Family: Setting the Records Straight' (http://www.centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/core/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/HistoryandFamily.pdf); Pat Thane (2010) 'Happy Families? History and Family Policy' (https://www.britac.ac.uk/sites/default/files/BRI0963%20Happy%20Families_WEB201109%20%281%29.pdf).

Supplementary reading: A. Aughinbaugh (2005), 'The impact of family structure transitions on youth achievement', Demography 42(3):447-68; Máire Ní Bhrolcháin and Éva Beaujouan (2013) ‘Education and Cohabitation in Britain since the 1970s: An evolving relationship’ ESRC Centre for Population Change Working Paper Number 33; Nickie Charles, Charlotte Aull Davies and Chris Harris (2008) Families in Transition: Social Change, Family Formation and Kin Relationships; Stephen Demuth and Susan L. Brown (2004), 'Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence Versus Parental Gender' Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41 58-81; Louise O’Leary, Eva Natamba, Julie Jefferies, Ben Wilson (2010) 'Fertility and partnership status in the last two decades', Population Trends, 140; Susan McRae (1999) Changing Britain: Families and Households in the 1990s; Elizabeth Roberts (1984) 'The Working-Class Extended Family: Functions and Attitudes 1890-1940' Oral History 12:1 48-55; Elizabeth Roberts (1985) A Woman's Place: An Oral History of Working-class Women, 1890-1940; Michael Rutter (2010) Social science and family policies, https://www.britac.ac.uk/publications/social-science-and-family-policies; Richard wall (1983) ‘Household’ in Family Forms in Historic Europe; J. Scott (1997), Changing households in Britain: do families still matter?. The Sociological Review, 45: 591–620; I Smith (1997) 'Explaining the Growth of Divorce in Great Britain' Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 44:5 519-544; Julie-Marie Strange (2015) Fatherhood and the British working class, 1865–1914; BJ Willoughby et al (2014) 'Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults' J Psychol, 149:8 796-817.

Seminar/essay questions: How 'new' were the new family forms of the late 20th century? Did the twentieth century mark the end of the extended family?

Week 4. Families, class, employment and region 1: agriculture to industry

Key readings: Hugh Cunningham (2000) 'The Decline of Child Labour: Labour Markets and Family Economies in Europe and North America Since 1830' Economic History Review, 53:3 409-428; and Lu Ann Jones 'DuPont comes to Tobacco Road: oral history and rural industrialisation in the post-Second World War American South' Oral History, 42:1 35-46.

Supplementary reading: Rebecca Bates (2009) 'Building imperial youth? Reflections on labour and the construction of working-class childhood' Paedagogica Historica 45:1/2 143-156; Colin Creighton (1999) 'The rise and decline of the 'male breadwinner family' in Britain' Cambridge Journal of Economics 23:5 519-541; Michael Drake and Ruth Finnegan (1997) Studying Family History and Community History 19th and 20th Centuries Sources and Methods: A Handbook; Leonora Beck Ellis (1903) 'A study of southern cotton-mill communities' American Journal of Sociology 8:5 623-630; Nigel Goose and Katrina Honeyman (2013), Childhood and child labour in industrial England; Pamela Horn (1984) The changing countryside in Victorian and Edwardian England and Wales; Pamela Horn (1995) Children's work and welfare, 1780-1890; Jane Humphries (2010) Childhood and child labour in the British Industrial Revolution; Ivan Jablonka (2001) 'Paths toward autonomy: The living conditions of fostered children in western France in the early 20th century' The History of the Family 6:3 401-421; Angélique Janssens (1998) The rise and decline of the male breadwinner family? Michael Lavalette (1999) 'The changing form of child labour' in Lavalette, A thing of the past?: child labour in Britain in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; National Archives Child Labour http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/citizenship/struggle_democracy/childlabour.htm; Jeremy Seabrook (1982) Working Class Childhood and Oral History; E.P. Thompson (1963) The Making of the English working class; Nicola Verdon (2002) Rural women workers in 19thC England; Melissa Walker and Rebecca Sharpless (2006) Work, family, and faith: rural southern women in the twentieth century.

Seminar/essay questions: How were families affected by the decline of agriculture? Did industrialisation lead to a rise or fall in child labour?

Week 5. Families, class, employment and region 2: industry to post-industry

Key readings: Eleanor Conlin Casella (2012) “That’s Just a Family Thing, You Know”: Memory, Community Kinship, and Social Belonging in the Hagg Cottages of Cheshire, North-West England' International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 16:2 284-299; and Lutz Raphael (2012) 'Transformations of Industrial Labour in Western Europe: Intergenerational Change of Life Cycles, Occupation and Mobility 1970–2000' German History, 30:1 100–119.

Supplementary reading: Chad Broughton (2006) 'Downsizing Masculinity: Gender, Family, and Fatherhood in Post-Industrial America' Anthropology of Work Review 27:1 1-12; Jean-Pierre Dormois and Michael Dintenfass (eds) (2003) The British industrial decline; Thomas Dublin (1998) 'Working-class families respond to industrial decline' International Labor and Working-Class History (54) 40-56; David Edgerton (1996) Science, technology and the British industrial 'decline', 1870-1970; Laurence F. Gross and Gerald G. Eggert (1994) 'The Course of Industrial Decline: The Boott Cotton Mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, 1835-1955' International Labor and Working-Class History 46 219-221; B.G. Gunter and Harvey A. Moore (1975) Youth, Leisure, and Post-Industrial Society: Implications for the Family' The Family Coordinator 24:2 199-207; Florian Hertel (2017) 'Empirical description of industrial and post-industrial classes' in Hertel, Social Mobility in the 20th Century; Ronald Johnson (2000) 'Declining Industries and the Persistence of Government Support Programs: The Quiet Decline of Gum Naval Stores Production in the United States' Journal of Economic History, 60:4 995-1016; Sharyn Pearce (2000) 'Performance Anxiety: The Interaction of Gender and Power in "The Full Monty" Australian Feminist Studies 15:32 227-236; John Russo (2014) 'The Lasting Effects of Deindustrialization: Exit Zero: Family and Class in Postindustrial Chicago' New Labor Forum 23:2 115-117; Robin Simmons et al (2014) Education Work and Social Change; Tim Strangleman et al (2013) 'Introduction to Crumbling Cultures: Deindustrialization, Class, and Memory' International Labor & Working-Class History 84 7-22; Jim Tomlinson (2016) 'De-industrialization Not Decline: A New Meta-narrative for Post-war British History' Twentieth Century British History 27:1 76-99; Christine Walley (2013) Exit Zero: Family and Class in Postindustrial Chicago.

Seminar/essay questions: How did deindustrialisation affect parent/child relations? What is role of the family in post-industrial society?

Week 7. Ethnicity and religion: children and migration, 1860-2000

Key readings: Jennifer Craig-Norton (2012) 'Polish Kinder and the Struggle for Identity' in Hammel and Lewkowicz, Kindertransport to Britain 1938/39: New Perspectives; and Gordon Lynch (2016) 'The humane remedy': America and the development of mass child migration' in Lynch, Remembering Child Migration.

Supplementary reading: Ellen Boucher (2014) Empire's children: child emigration, welfare, and the decline of the British world' 1869-1967; Stephen Constantine, 'Child migration: philanthropy, the state and the empire' History in Focus 14 https://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Focus/welfare/articles/constantines.html; Cedric Goosens (2016), 'The myth of The Phoenix: progressive education, migration and the shaping of the welfare state, 1985-2015' Paedagogica Historica 52:5 467-484; Harry Hendrick (2003) Child Welfare; Dolores Herrero (2015), 'Oranges and Sunshine: The Story of a Traumatic Encounter Humanities 4:4 714-725; Chris Jeffery and Geoffrey Sherrington (1998) Fairbridge: Empire and Child Migration; Scott Johnston (2014), "Only Send Boys Of The Good Type": Child Migration And The Boy Scout Movement, 1921-1959' Journal of the History of Childhood & Youth 7:3 377-397; Margrite Kalverboer et al (2017), 'Assessing and Determining the Best Interests of the Child in Migration Procedures' International Journal of Children's Rights, 25:1 114-139; Jon Lawrence and Pat Starkey (2001) Child welfare and social action in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: international perspectives; Ediith Milton (2006) The Tiger in The Attic; Michal Ostrovsky (2015) 'Transplanted into New Soil: Activities of the European Jewish Children's Aid with Young Holocaust Survivors, 1945-1953' American Jewish History 99:3 243-266; Kristen Rundle (2011) 'Improbable agents of empire: Coming to terms with British child migration' Adoption 35:3 30-37; Emmy Werner (2009) Passages to America; Christian Ydesena and Kevin Myers (2016) 'The imperial welfare state? Decolonisation, education and professional interventions on immigrant children in Birmingham, 1948-1971' Paedagogica Historica 52:5, 453-466.

Seminar/essay questions?: Was nationality, ethnicity or religion more important in shaping children's experiences of migration? Was immigration 'easier' for child migrants who were 'white'? 

Week 8. Child protection and child abuse: from the case of ‘Mary Ellen’ (1874) to ‘Baby P’ (2007)

Key readings: John Myers (2006) 'Societies for the prevention of cruelty to children' in Myers, Child Protection in America: Past, Present and Future; and Nigel Parton (2014), 'The Changing Politics and Practice of Child Protection and Safeguarding in England' in Wagg and Pilcher, Thatcher's grandchildren?

Suppmentary reading: Eric Blythe and Wendy Parkin (1999) Children, child abuse and child protection; Deborah Daro, Anne Cohn Donnelly, Lee Ann Huang, Byron J. Powell (2015) Advances in Child Abuse Prevention Knowledge: The Perspective of New Leadership; Education Journal (2017) '200% increase in reports of child emotional abuse' Education Journal 309, 14; Monica Flegel (2009) Conceptualising cruelty to children; Nick Frost (1989) The Politics of Child Welfare: Inequality, Power and Change; Juha Hämäläinen (2016) 'The origins and evolution of child protection in terms of the history of ideas' Paedagogica Historica 52:6 734-747; Harry Hendrick (2003) Child Welfare; Louise Jackson (2001) Child sexual abuse in Victorian England; Molly Ladd-Taylor "Saving Babies and Sterilizing Mothers: Eugenics and Welfare Politics in the Interwar United States," Social Politics 4 136-153; Jon Lawrence and Pat Starkey (2001) Child Welfare and Social Action in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: International Perspectives; Maria Luddy (2009) 'The Early Years of the NSPCC in Ireland' Eire-Ireland 44:1/2 62-90; Keith Popple (2015) 'The Story of Baby P: Setting the Record Straight' British Journal of Social Work 45:31069-71; Beth M. Schwartz-Kenney, Michelle McCauley, and Michelle A. Epstein (2001) Child abuse: a global view; flegel; 'reducing abuse and neglect' child protection in amerca; Brian Watkin (1975) Documents on Health and Social Services: 1834 to the present day.

Seminar/essay questions? Why were societies for the prevention of cruelty to children founded in the late-19th century? Were children 'safer' in the late-20th century, than the late-19th century?

Week 9. Families during war: World War One 1914-1918 and World War Two 1939-1945

Key readings: Laura Lee Downs (2016) 'Au Revoir les Enfants: Wartime Evacuation and the Politics of Childhood in France and Britain, 1939–45' History Workshop Journal, 82;1 121–150; and Annmarie Hughes and Jeff Meek (2014) 'State Regulation, Family Breakdown, and Lone Motherhood: The Hidden Costs of World War I in Scotland' Journal of Family History 39:4, 364-38.

Supplementary reading: Alexis Artaud de La Ferrière (2014) 'The voice of the innocent: propaganda and childhood testimonies of war' History of Education 43, 105-123; Hester Barron (2016) Parenting and the State in Britain and Europe, c. 1870-1950; Susan R. Grayzel (1999) Women's Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France during the First World War; Taylor Jaworski (2014) 'You're in the Army Now': The Impact of World War II on Women's Education, Work, and Family' Journal of Economic History 74:1, 169-95; B.S. Johnson (1968) The Evacuees; Torsten Santavirta (2012) 'How Large Are the Effects from Temporary Changes in Family Environment: Evidence from a Child-Evacuation Program During World War II' American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 4:3 28-42; Harold Smith (1986) War and Social Change; Penny Summerfield (1998) Reconstructing Women's Wartime Lives; Julie Summers (2012) When the Children Came Home; Peter Stearns (2017) 'The Dislocations of the Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries: Children Face War and Violence' in Childhood and World History; Laura Ugolini (2016) 'Middle-Class Fathers, Sons and Military Service in England, 1914–1918' Cultural & Social History 13:3 357-375; Hester Vaizey (2010) Surviving Hitler's War: Family life in Germany, 1939-48; John Welshman (2010), Churchill's Children.

Seminar/essay questions: How were families affected by war? Was children's wellbeing a wartime priority?

Week 10. Children’s rights and responsibilities: from the Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1924) to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Key readings: Dominique Marshall (1999) 'The construction of children as an object of international relations: The Declaration of Children's Rights and the Child Welfare Committee of League of Nations, 1900-1924' International Journal of Childre's Rights 7 103–147; and Zoe Moody (2014) 'Transnational treaties on children’s rights: Norm building and circulation in the twentieth century', Paedagogica Historica 50:1/2 151-164.

Supplementary reading: Nicolas Brando (2017) 'Rights of the Child: 25 Years After the Adoption of the UN Convention.' Political Studies Review 15 2, 283-284; Jhon Eekelaar (1986) 'The emeregence of children's rights' Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 6,2, 161–182; Paula Fass (2011) 'A Historical Context for the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child' Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 633,17-29; Michael Freeman (ed) (2011) Children's rights; Juha Hämäläinen (2016) 'The origins and evolution of child protection in terms of the history of ideas' Paedagogica Historica, 52,6, 734-747; Antonella Invernizzi and Jane Williams (2011) The human rights of children; Olga Cvejić Jančić (2016) The rights of the child in a changing world; Ellen Key (1909) The Century of the Child; Manfred Liebel (2012) Children's rights from below; Stephen Wagg and Jane Pilcher (eds) (2014) Thatcher's grandchildren?: politics and childhood in the twenty-first century; Bengt Sandin (1995)The Century of the Child http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:511663/FULLTEXT02.pdf; Joseph Zajda and Sev Ozdowski (eds) (2017) Globalisation, Human Rights Education and Reforms.

Seminar/essay questions: Was the 20th century the century of the child? Did treaties on children's rights affect children's daily lives?

Term 2
Week 1. Babies and infants: the international infant welfare movement, 1890-1920

Key readings: Miriam Cohen and Michael Hanagan (1991) 'The Politics of Gender and the Making of the Welfare State, 1900-1940: A Comparative Perspective' Journal of Social History 24:3 469-484; and Hilary Marland, 'A Pioneer in Infant Welfare: The Huddersfield Scheme: 1903-1920' Social History of Medicine 6:1 25-50.

Supplementary reading: Ruth Davidson (2014) '‘Dreams of Utopia’: the infant welfare movement in interwar Croydon' Women's History Review 23;2 239-255; Deborah Dwork (1987) War is Good for babies and other young children; Valerie Fildes, Lara Marks and Hilary Marland (eds) (1992) Women and children first: international maternal and infant welfare 1870-1945 / edited by Valerie Fildes, Lara Marks and Hilary Marland; Seth Koven and Sonya Michel (1990) 'Womanly Duties: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States in France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States, 1880-1920' The American Historical Review 95,4 1076-1108; anna davin, imperialism and motherhood; charity anmd welfare for new mothers and infants, poor and pregnant in paris; kathleen erin mcgreal, review of war is good for babies; infant mortality a continuing socuial probelm, ed garrett;

Seminar/essay questions: Why was there a new focus on infant welfare in the late-19th and early-20th century? How 'international' was the infant welfare movevemnt?

Week 2. Children at home: late-nineteenth-century families, 1860-1914

Key readings: Lynn Abrams (2014) 'Home, Kinship and Community' in Abrams, The making of modern woman: Europe 1789-1918; and Sian Pooley (2013) ‘Parenthood, child-rearing and fertility in England, 1850–1914’ The History of the Family, 18:1 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1081602X.2013.795491

Supplementary reading: EJ Yeo (1999) 'The creation of "motherhood" and women's responses in Britain and France, 1750-1914' Women's History Review, 8,2 201-18; Edward Shorter (1976) The making of the modern family; Anthony Wohl (1978) The Victorian family : structure and stresses; John Tosh (1999) A man's place: masculinity and the middle-class home in Victorian England; angelique janssens' family and social change; lynn abrams, making of modern woamn; 'mothers and children'; work and family in victorian england, ittmann; volo, family life in 19th C America; silent sisterhood; patricia branca; fatherhood providing and attachment juliemarie strange; at home in the institution jane hamlett; lynn abrams, 'there's nobody like my daddy'; simon szreter birth control and abstinencae in england; fatherhood and the british working class julie mariestrange; abbott, family affiars; ; gender ideology and seperate spheres jan marsh; ; gender roles in the nineteenth centr kathryn hughes

Seminar/essay questions: What was the membership of a 'typical' ninetenth-century family? How was the late-ninetenth-century family gendered?

Week 3. Children at school: the introduction of compulsory education, c. 1870-1930

Key readings: Ellen Berg (2012) ‘'To Become GOOD MEMBERS OF CIVIL SOCIETY and PATRIOTIC AMERICANS’: Mass Education in the United States, 1870–1930' in Brockless and Sheldon, Mass education and the limits of state building, c.1870-1930; and Jean-François Chanet (2012) ‘Schools Are Society’s Salvation’: The State and Mass Education in France, 1870–1930' in Brockless and Sheldon, Mass education and the limits of state building, c.1870-1930.

Supplementary reading: Kaspar Burger (2014) 'Entanglement and transnational transfer in the history of infant schools in Great Britain and salles d’asile in France, 1816–1881' History of Education 43,3, 304-333; Heather Ellis 'Elite Education and the Development of Mass Elementary Schooling in England, 1870–1930' in Brockless and Sheldon, Mass education and the limits of state building, c.1870-1930; Yasemin Nuhoglu Soysal and David Strang (1989) Construction of the First Mass Education Systems in Nineteenth-Century Europe' Sociology of Education 62,4 277-288; Susannah Wright (2012) 'Citizenship, Moral Education and the English Elementary School' in Brockless and Sheldon, Mass education and the limits of state building, c.1870-1930; Hester Barron,parents, teachers amd children's wellbeing in London; Heather Ellis, elite education and the development of mass elementary scholing in England; Harry Passow, Early School Leaving; comparitive education, Peter Sandyford, studies of the euctaional systems of six mondern nations (1918); Nigel Middleton, the education act of 1870 (1970); Kevin Stannard, ideology, education and social structure; Lionel Rose, the eosion of childhood; Gary macculloch, education and the middle classes; jason long, the socio-economic return; carol dyehouse, good wives and little mothers; derek heater, england's slow path to the national curriculum

Seminar/essay questions: Why was compulsory schooling introduced? Did compulsory education meet its aims?

Week 4. Children at work: the implementation of child labour laws, 1860-1945

Key readings: Dyan Colclough (2016) 'Protective Legislation and the Theatrical Child' in Coclough, Child Labor in the British Victorian Entertainment Industry: 1875-1914; and Sylvia Schafer (1996) 'Law, Labor and the Spectacle of the Body: Protecting Child Street Performers in Nineteenth-Century France' International Journal of Children's Rights 4:1 1-18.

Supplementary reading: Hugh Cunningham and Pier Viazzo (eds) (1996) Child labour in historical perspective; Carolyn Moehling (1999) 'State Child Labor Laws and the Decline of Child Labor' Explorations in Economic History 36:1 72; O Nieuwenhuys (2009) 'From Child Labour to Working Children’s Movements' in Qvortrup J., Corsaro W.A., Honig MS. (eds) The Palgrave Handbook of Childhood Studies; Ian C Rivera and Natasha M Howard (2010) (eds) Child labor in America; Neil Daglish, education policy and the question of child labour; Pamela Horn english theatre children, cunningham, the problem that doesn't exist; Michael Lavalette, the chaning form of child labour, in a thing of he past; davidoff and doolittle, the family story; hugh hindman, child labour and american history; marjatta rahikainen '20thC child labour' centuries of child labour; elizabeth mcghee, the impact of the war on child labour; thing of the past

Seminar/essay questions? Who were working children? Why did concerns about child labour persist into the twentieth century?

Week 5. Children at leisure: youth movements in the inter-war years

Key readings: Susan Miller (2001) 'A Splendid Army of Women' in Growing Girls: The Natural Origins of Girls' Organizations in America; and Tammy Proctor (2002) 'Creating a Clean Manliness' in Proctor On my honour: Guides and Scouts in interwar Britain.

Supplementary reading: Kenny Cupers (2008) 'Governing through nature: camps and youth movements in interwar Germany and the United States' Cultural Geographies 15;2 173-205; Selina Todd (2006) 'Flappers and Factory Lads: Youth and Youth CUlture in Interwar Britain' History Compass 4; 4 715-30; Susan Whitney (2009) Mobilizing Youth: Communists and Catholics in Interwar France; Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska (2014) 'Keep Fit and Play the Game: George VI, Outdoor Recreation and Social Cohesion in Interwar Britain' Cultural & Social History 11:1 111-129;

tammy proctor, ; tebbutt, being boys, youth leasire and idenity;

penny tinkler, cause for concern; dawson, girl scout; uniforming youth girl guides and boy scouts in britain; tammy proctor, fighting petticotas

Seminar/essay questions: In what ways did youth movements for boys and girls differ? Why did scouts and guides wear uniforms?

Week 7. Adolescents: youth and youth cultures since the 1950s

Key readings: Lisa Lindquist Dorr (2008) 'The Perils of the Back Seat: Date Rape, Race and Gender in 1950s America' Gender and History 20:1 27-47 and Selina Todd and Hilary Young (2012) 'Baby-boomers to 'Beanstalkers': Making the Modern Teenager in Post-War Britain' Cultural and Social History 9:3 451-467'.

Suppmentary reading: Klaus Nathaus (2015) '"All Dressed Up and Nowhere to Go"? Spaces and Conventions of Youth in 1950s Britain' Geschichte und Gesellschaft 41:1, 40-70; Sarah Mills (2016) 'Jives, jeans and Jewishness? Moral geographies, atmospheres and the politics of mixing at the Jewish Lads’ Brigade & Club 1954–1969' Environment & Planning D: Society & Space 34; 6, 1098-1112; Gillian Mitchell (2013) 'Reassessing ‘the Generation Gap’: Bill Haley’s 1957 Tour of Britain, Inter-Generational Relations and Attitudes to Rock ‘n’ Roll in the Late 1950s' Twentieth Century British History 24:4, 573-605; Philip Smith and Michael Goodrum (2017) 'Corpses ... Coast to Coast! Trauma, gender and race in 1950s horror comics', Literature Compass 14; 9; furlong, young people and social change; fowler, youth culture in modern britain; pat thane, family life and normality; beth bailey, rebels without a cause; penny tinkler, are you living...; cohen, folk devils and moral panics;

Seminar/essay questions: How modern was the teenager? How was the figure of the teenager gendered, classed, and racialised?

Week 8. Fathers and children: men's place in the home 1919-1939

Key readings: Tim Fisher (2005) 'Fatherhood and the British Fathercraft Movement, 1919–39' Gender and History 17:2 441-462; and Kristen Stromberg (2001) 'Paternity and the Politics of Citizenship in Interwar France' Journal of Family History 26:1 90-111.

Suppmentary reading: Ann Taylor Alen (2014) 'Feminism and Fatherhood in Western Europe' Journal of Women's History 26:2, 39-62; Laura King (2015) Family Men; Cheryl Koosa (1999) 'Fascism, fatherhood, and the family in interwar France: The case of Antoine Redier and the Legion' Journal of Family History 24:3, 317; Joel Morley (2017) 'Dad ‘never said much’ but… Young Men and Great War Veterans in Day-to-Day-Life in Interwar Britain' Twentieth Century British History. S Hermansen et al, 'Exploring the role of modern day fatherhood'; Laura King 'Pram'; LaRossa, The nodermization of fatherhood; Margery Levene Clark, The politics of preference; Fisher, fathers and the first world war; Laura King, Hidden Fathers

Seminar/essay questions: How were fathers expected to care for their children? Was there a new focus on fatherhood between the wars?

Week 9. Mothers and children: ‘modern’ motherhood, 1945-1970

Key readings: Elizabeth Singer More (2011) “The Necessary Factfinding Has Only Just Begun”: Women, Social Science, and the Reinvention of the “Working Mother” in the 1950s' Women's Studies 40:8 974-1005; and Dolly Smith Wilson (2005) 'A New Look at the Affluent Worker: The Good Working Mother in Post-War Britain' Twentieth Century British History 17:2 206-229.

Supplementary reading: Angela Davis (2012) Modern Motherhood; Jessical Martucci (2015) 'Why Breastfeeding?: Natural Motherhood in Post-War America' Journal of Women's History 27:2, 110-133; Kimberley Morgan (2003) 'The Politics of Mothers' Employment: France in Comparative Perspective' World Politics 55:2, 259-289; Marga Vicedo (2011) 'The social nature of the mother's tie to her child: John Bowlby's theory of attachment in post-war America' British Journal for the History of Science 44 :3, 401-426; Elizabeth Wilson, Halfway to Paradise; Sheila Rowthbotham, to be or not to be; Rima Apple, perfect motherhood;

Seminar/essay questions: Could working mothers be 'good' mothers? Was motherhood seen as labour or love?

Week 10. Institutional and foster care: ‘forgotten children’ in the second half of the twentieth century

Key readings: Laura Curran (2008) 'Longing to "Belong": Foster Children in Mid-Century Philadelphia (1946-1963)' Journal of Social History 42:2 425-445; and Julie Shaw and Andrew Kendrick (2017) 'Reflecting on the Past: Children's Services Workers Experiences of Residential Care in Scotland from 1960-1975' British Journal of Social Work 47:2 375-91.

Supplementary reading: Stephen Constantine (2002) 'The British government, child welfare, and child migration to Australia after 1945', The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 30,1; Laura Curran (2002) 'The Psychology of Poverty: Professional Social Work and Aid to Dependent Children in Postwar America, 1946–1963' Social Service Review, 76;3, 365-386; Christian Ydensa and Kevin Myers (2016) 'The imperial welfare state? Decolonisation, education and professional interventions on immigrant children in Birmingham, 1948-1971' Paedagogica Historica, 52;5, 453-466; Adrian V. Rus, Sheri R. Parris, Ecaterina Stativa (2017) Child Maltreatment in Residential Care.

Seminar/essay questions: What were the experieces of children in institutional and foster care? Why did looked after children remain 'forgotten'?

Term 3
Week 1. Revision 1
Week 2. Revision 2