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Week 10: Social Rights from above and below: Socialism, nationalism, populism  

Week 10: Social Rights from above and below: Socialism, nationalism, populism


How did the nature of rights afforded by Latin American states change in the twentieth century? What impact did the twentieth century revolutions have on rights discourses? What was the contribution of Latin American states to the international human rights system? When did ideas of social rights emerge in Latin America? How did social rights become part of the international Human Rights system? Who benefited from the rights afforded by the twentieth century states? Who was left out?


Core Reading: 


Secondary sources:


Alan McPherson, and Yannick Wehrli (eds.) Beyond Geopolitics : New Histories of Latin America at the League of Nations, University of New Mexico Press, 2015. (Part 2: Labour-chapter of your choice) 


Kathryn M. Marino. Feminism for the Americas: The Making of and International Human Rights Movement. Chapel Hill, NC: UNC Press, 2019. (Introduction and Conclusion and raid according to your interest.)

OR either of the following depending on your interest

Okezi Otovo, Progressive Mothers, Better Babies: Race, Public Health and the State in Brazil, 1850-1945.University of Texas Press, 2016. (Especially Chapter 5 and Introduction if it helps). 

Guy, Donna J.Women Build the Welfare State : Performing Charity and Creating Rights in Argentina, 1880-1955.Duke University Press, 2009.  



Primary sources: 


What do the primary sources tell us about mid-twentieth-century populist governments relationship with labour and their approach to social rights? 

Juan Peron's Bill of Worker's Rights, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1947. MRC. 

TUC documents relating to Mexico, 1926-1940. MRC. (See especially the documents relating to the expropriation of the oilfields in 1938). 

Speeches of Eva Peron (Argentina 1951), Eva Peron on Women's Suffrage (Argentina 1947).

Look at this trade union leaflet about social security from Brazil. What are the limitations as a source for you as a researcher? Are there any ways that you could use it despite the limitations? What other information would you need to find in order to use the source? 

'Cartilha de Previdencia para os Trabalhadores do Brasil o Previdente olha adeante' (leaflet), Undated [1930?] 


Background Reading: 

Robert M Levine, Father of the Poor? Vargas and his Era (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998) chapter 3, “The Estado Novo,” pp 50-74 a 

Relevant Chapters of Matthew Brown or Alexander Dawson's readers. 


Further Reading: 


Carlos Aguirre and Paulo Drinot. The Peculiar Revolution: Rethinking the Peruvian Experiment Under Military Rule. University of Texas Press, 2017. 

Paulina Alberto. Terms of Inclusion: Black Intellectuals in Twentieth-Century Brazil. University of North Carolina Press, 2011, Chapters 2 and 3.

Mashood Baderin and Robert McCorquodale (eds.), Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in Action. Oxford: OUP, 2007. (Especially Chapter 8 by Veronica Gomez)

Carmagnani, Marcello. The Other West : Latin America from Invasion to Globalization, University of California Press, 2011. Chapter 5.

Angela N Castañeda, ‘Performing the African Diaspora in Mexico’ in Comparative Perspectives on Afro-Latin America, edited by Kwame Dixon, and John Burdick, University Press of Florida, 2012.

Matthew Craven, The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: A Perspective on Its Development. Oxford, 1995.

Jerry Dávila. Diploma of whiteness: race and social policy in Brazil, 1917-1945. 2003.

Paolo Drinot, 'Creole Anti-Communism: Labor, the Peruvian Communist Party and APRA, 1930-1934.' Hispanic American Historical Review, 92:4, 2012 703-736.

Susan Eva Eckstein and Timothy P. Wickham-Crowley. Struggles for Social Rights in Latin America, Routledge, 2002. [e-book in the Library] 

Eduardo Elena, E. "Argentina in black and white: Race, Peronism, and the color of politics, 1940s to the present." In P. Alberto & E. Elena (Eds.), Rethinking Race in Modern Argentina . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, 184-210. 

Paulo Fontes, Migration and the Making of Industrial São Paulo. Duke University Press, 2016.

Linda Fuller, Work and Democracy in Socialist Cuba. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.

Roberto Garagella. Latin American Constitutionalism, 1810-2010: The Engine Room of the Constitution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. (Chapters 6 and 7)

Donna J. Guy. Women Build the Welfare State: Performing Charity and Creating Rights in Argentina, 1880-1955, Duke University Press, 2009. (Chapter 6)

Brodwyn M. Fischer. A poverty of rights: citizenship and inequality in twentieth-century Rio de Janeiro. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008.

Marcela García Sebastiani, ‘The Other Side of Peronist Argentina: Radicals and Socialists in the Political Opposition to Perón (1946–1955)’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 35 (2003), 311–339.

Jaymie Patricia Heilman. Before the Shining Path: Politics in Rural Ayacucho, 1895-1980, Stanford University Press, 2010. (Relevant Chapters)

Kaitlyn Henderson. Race, Discrimination, and the Cuban Constitution of 1940. Hispanic American Historical Review 1 May 2020; 100 (2): 257–284.

Daniel James, Resistance and Integration: Peronism and the Argentine Working Class, 1946 -1976. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Alan Knight. “Populism and Neo-Populism in Latin America, Especially Mexico.” Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 30, no. 2, 1998, p. 223.

Lawrence J. Le Blanc. “Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and the Interamerican System”Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Volume 19, Issue 1 February 1977 , pp. 61-82.

Florencia E. Mallon. The Defense of Community in Peru's Central Highlands: Peasant Struggle and Capitalist Transition, 1860-1940. Princeton, 2014.

Ian Roxborough. “The Urban Working Class and Labour Movement in Latin America since 1930.” The Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie Bethell, vol. 6, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995, pp. 305–378. The Cambridge History of Latin America.

Snodgrass, Michael. Deference and Defiance in Monterrey: Workers, Paternalism, and Revolution in Mexico, 1890-1950. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Juan Pablo Scarfi and Andrew Tillman (eds.) Cooperation and Hegemony in US-Latin American Relations: Revisiting the Western Hemisphere Idea. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. (Tanya Harmer and Mark Jeffrey Peterson's Chapters). 

Magdalena Sepúlveda. The Nature of the Obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (Antwerp, 2003).

Ernesto Seman. Ambassadors of the Working Class: Argentina's International Labor Activists and Cold War Democracy in the Americas. Durham: Duke University Press, 2017.

Alberto Spektorowski, 'The Ideological Origins and Right and Left Nationalism in Argentina, 1930-1943', Journal of Contemporary History , Vol. 29, No. 1 (1994), pp. 155-184.

William Suarez Potts, “The Ambiguity of Labor Justice in Mexico, 1907-1931,” in Leon Fink and Juan Manuel Palacio, eds., Labor Justice across the Americas University of Illinois Press, 2018.

Cheryl B. Welch, ‘Liberalism and Social Rights’ in Murray Milgate and Cheryl B. Welch (eds.), Critical Issues in Social Thought (London, 1989).

Barbara Weinstein, The Colour of Modernity: São Paulo and the Making of Race and Nation in Brazil. Duke University Press, 2015.

Cliff Welch. The seed was planted: the Säo Paulo roots of Brazil's rural labor movement, 1924-1964. 1999.

Daryle Williams, Culture wars in Brazil: the first Vargas regime, 1930-1945. 2001.

Joel Wolfe, Working Women, Working Men: São Paulo and the Rise of Brazil's Industrial Working Class, 1900–1955. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993.

Daniel J. Whelan, Indivisible Human Rights – A History (Univ. of Pennsylvania, 2010).


Primary Sources: 

International Covenant of Social, Economic and Cultural Rights, (1966). 

Che Guevarra, The Debate at Punta del Este, 1961. 

Short clip of Guevara's speech at Punta del Este 

Che Guevara's Statement to the UN, 11 December, 1964 

The American Convention on Human Rights, 1969 

Inter-American Commission of Women, Organization of American States

Speeches of Eva Peron (Argentina 1951), Eva Peron on Women's Suffrage (Argentina 1947).

Daniel James " Peron and the People" and Tomas Eloy Martinez "Santa Evita" in Gabriela Nouzeilles and Graciela Montaldo (eds.) The Argentina Reader: History Culture and Politics. Duke, 2002, pp. 273-303.

Select a document that interests you from the following:

TUC documents relating to South America, 1929-1946. MRC. 

TUC documents reating to South America, 1946-1949. MRC. 

TUC documents relating to Mexico, 1926-1940. MRC.